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Seneca - De beneficiis: Tradizion del primo libro

 [First posted in AWOL 3 March 2014, updated 19 December 2016]

Seneca - De beneficiis: Tradizion del primo libro
"Seneca - De beneficiis"è un blog dove verrà postata, paragrafo dopo paragrafo, la traduzione italiana del I libro del De beneficiis di Seneca.
A postarla saranno i loro autori, ovvero gli alunni della classe VR del Liceo Scientifico "S. Cannizzaro" di Palermo (a. s. 2013-14), che hanno scelto di affrontare con coraggio e con generosità, nell'anno del loro esame di stato, questa avventura didattica che io, il loro docente di latino, ho proposto.
Per il loro coraggio e la loro generosità li voglio ringraziare tutti, citandoli per nome: Roberto De Fortis, Emanuele Filingeri, Gianmarco Geraci, Alessandro Li Vigni, Giulio Lo Re, Andrea Messina, Alice Orlando, Roberta Pacino, Emilio Pinto, Giuseppe Pipitone, Francesco Pirillo, Federica Restivo, Riccardo Tarantino, Ornella Urzì, Gloria Varrica. 
La traduzione sarà il frutto del loro lavoro collettivo, ed è stata concepita come un dono che la classe ha scelto di fare alla comunità, dal momento che non esistono, in rete, edizioni digitali in italiano di questo trattato di Seneca.


Open Access Journal: Antiqua: Aintzinari Buruzko Jardunaldiak - Jornades sobre la antiqüedad


Online Course: Health and Wellbeing in the Ancient World

Health and Wellbeing in the Ancient World 
About the course
What did being healthy in ancient Rome or Greece look like? How can we tell what wellbeing meant in ancient times? This course will help you investigate the health of people in ancient Greece and Rome, using both literary and archaeological evidence to uncover details of real life in ancient societies.

Explore ancient life through primary evidence

This course is designed to challenge simplistic approaches which apply modern distinctions to the ancient world. Instead you’ll go back to the start and look at the primary evidence on which all modern assumptions are based. You’ll examine different objects closely, learning what each item can tell us about life in ancient times.

Understand ancient theories by examining the body

On the course we’ll divide the body up into organs and systems, using each as a starting point to explore ancient theories of the structure and function of the human body, and other aspects of ancient life.
We’ll discover ancient Greece and Rome in full, from the public to the personal, and from army and urban life to the lived experience of women and children. Using the evidence on the hair and face, the eyes, the digestive system, the organs of reproduction and the feet you’ll explore topics with which our society still wrestles, including the location of the ‘self’; the relationship between mind and body; identity; food and drink; sanitation; sexuality, ageing and gender.

Improve your critical and analytical abilities

Through the course you’ll develop some of the skills needed in the study of classics and history including:
  • Improving your ability to critically analyse primary sources
  • Learning to analyse complex problems based on fragmentary evidence
  • Developing your ability to engage with contemporary interpretations and scholarly debates.
For a taste of what will be covered in this course, read this post from Lead Educator, Helen King.

Free publication on emergency evacuation of collections

December 15, 2016
Endangered Heritage Emergency Evacuation of Heritage Collections
New user-friendly handbook launched by ICCROM and UNESCO helps save heritage collections in emergencies. 
Armed conflicts and natural disasters causing deliberate or collateral damage to cultural heritage are more prominent than ever. To help strengthen efforts to save collections from imminent threats, ICCROM and UNESCO have joined forces to produce Endangered Heritage: Emergency Evacuation of Heritage Collections, a practical handbook available for free download.
Built upon years of experience and real-life situations, this publication offers a field-tested, simple workflow for the emergency evacuation of valuable objects that is easy to replicate in any context.
A multi-purpose guide, it is created with a variety of users in mind, with simple language and layout intended for heritage personnel, emergency responders and civilians alike. It offers guidance on when and how to intervene to protect endangered heritage, its illustrations and charts helping readers to understand quickly and begin working.
In crisis situations already underway, it is a fast and easy read that covers the emergency documentation of collections, safe transport and temporary storage.
For institutions that are either in vulnerable areas or generally seeking to create an emergency plan, this booklet will be a valuable aid in disaster preparedness. It will assist users in prioritizing needs and in planning for realistic action within specific circumstances, using limited resources.

Created within the framework of UNESCO’s Emergency Response Actions and ICCROM’s flagship programme on First Aid to Cultural Heritage in Times of Crisis, this tool has been developed with training and learning at the centre of its focus. It is based on the unique body of knowledge amassed through numerous training activities relating to cultural heritage and actual emergencies that have taken place worldwide.

Job: Research Fellow: Cataloging Open Access Classics Serials (COACS)

Job: Research Fellow: Cataloging Open Access Classics Serials (COACS)
University of London
The Institute of Classical Studies is running a one-year pilot project Cataloging Open Access Classics Serials (COACS), in collaboration with the Combined Library of the ICS and of the Hellenic and Roman Societies, and colleagues in the UK, Germany and the USA. 


The Institute of Classical Studies (ICS) is the national centre for the promotion and facilitation of research into Classics and related disciplines. Founded in 1953 by the University of London and the Hellenic and Roman Societies, it now provides an internationally renowned research library used by scholars from universities throughout the world. It also runs seminar series, conferences and other events aimed at making the results of new research into Greek and Roman Antiquity available to the widest possible audience.

The COACS Project 

The Institute of Classical Studies (ICS) is running a one-year pilot project, Cataloguing Open Access Classics Serials (COACS), in collaboration with the Combined Library of the ICS and of the Hellenic and Roman Societies, and colleagues in the UK, Germany and the USA. This project will leverage the various sites that list or index open access (OA) publications, especially journals and serials in classics and ancient history in the first instance, so as to produce a resource that subject libraries may use to automatically catalogue the publications and articles therein.

The Role 

The Institute of Classical Studies is seeking an engaged and active Developer to work on the COACS project. The primary function of this role is to assess several databases of open access journals in ancient studies and formulate an intermediate metadata format for recording and sharing the serial and article records; build code to help with cataloguing and indexing the contents, and ingest the results into the library catalogue.  The role also requires acting as point of contact for academic project partners and other libraries working with the data and code we create.
Candidates will required a PhD or other postgraduate qualification (awarded or close to completion) in Classical Studies, Digital Humanities, Computer Science, Information and Library Studies or related discipline or equivalent professional experience in the library and information sector. You will have an understanding of the workings of specialist research libraries and a familiarity with metadata formats used in libraries especially MARC, MODS, XML, JSON. Candidates will require proficiency in a high-level programming language (preferably Python, but e.g.. also Javascript, PHP, Perl) and strong English Language and communication skills.

For an informal discussion on this position, please contact Dr Gabriel Bodard on gabriel.bodard@sas.ac.uk. For any recruitment issues or enquiries please contact the recruitment team on ulrecruit@london.ac.uk

openn-xml: TEI/XML files for the University of Pennsylvania's manuscripts in the Lawrence J. Schoenberg Collection (0001) and the Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts Collection

openn-xml: TEI/XML files for the University of Pennsylvania's manuscripts in the Lawrence J. Schoenberg Collection (0001) and the Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts Collection
This repository contains the TEI/XML files for the University of Pennsylvania's manuscripts in the Lawrence J. Schoenberg Collection (0001) and the Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts Collection (0002). These files are also stored, along with image files, on the Penn-hosted OPenn site (http://openn.library.upenn.edu/) The root URL for all refrenced images is http://openn.library.upenn.edu/Data/.

The TEI files are ©2015 University of Pennsylvania Libraries. They are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License version 4.0 (CC-BY-4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. For a description of the terms of use see the Creative Commons Deed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

All images referenced by these files and their content are free of known copyright restrictions and in the public domain. See the Creative Commons Public Domain Mark page for usage details, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/.

Open Access Journal: The Journal of Ancient Egyptian Architecture

The Journal of Ancient Egyptian Architecture
ISSN: 2472-999X
The Journal of Ancient Egyptian Architecture is a scientific, open access and annual periodical. Its purpose is to promote the publication of research devoted to Ancient Egyptian architecture (domestic, civil, military, ritual/religious and funerary), from the Predynastic Period to the Roman imperial era, whatever the modern geographical context (Egypt, Sudan, Near East, etc). The subject scope includes everything relating to construction, regardless of its original importance or purpose.

The journal publishes fieldwork reports and studies undertaken in the Egyptological tradition, including discussions of epigraphy and iconography, but also work that utilizes specific skills such as structural and materials sciences, or modern investigative techniques. In this way, JAEA seeks to encourage the development of detailed technical descriptions, and deeply theorized understanding (of architectural symbolism, propaganda, climatic and geological influences, etc.). This interdisciplinary approach will help connect adjacent areas of expertise which, alone, could not reflect the richness and complexity of the Ancient Egyptian built heritage.

The periodical welcomes any study that meets any one of these goals, only on the condition that the formatting and content of articles are subject to JAEA scientific publication requirements.
Volume 1 (2016) is complete

The use of the ‘ceremonial’ cubit rod as a measuring tool. An explanation (p. 1)

Fr. Monnier, J.-P. Petit & Chr. Tardy

This article deals with data inscribed on Ancient Egyptian cubit rods, and more specifically on the ceremonial cubit rods. Following a description of their technical and symbolic aspects, the paper reveals a property of the fine subdivisions engraved on the graduated part of these objects, and demonstrates that they could have allowed the cubits to be used as very accurate measuring rulers for architectural drawings and craft works.

Published 22 July 2016 11794 Views 517 Downloads

Varieties and sources of sandstone used in Ancient Egyptian temples (p. 11)

J. A. Harrell

Sandstone was one of the principal building materials of ancient Egypt, and this paper provides an overview of the varieties and sources of sandstone used in temples and other monuments. Included are lists of all known sandstone temples and quarries with precise locations given for each along with their age and status, and additionally for the quarries, size and petrology. Three megascopic properties (grain size, bedding type, and color) and one microscopic property (total feldspar content) are assessed in terms of their usefulness in recognizing sandstone varieties and their sources.

Published 26 August 2016 2624 Views 236 Downloads

Biography of a Great Pyramid Casing Stone (p. 39)

D. I. Lightbody

In the collection of the National Museum of Scotland is a block of limestone that was once part of the outer face of the Great Pyramid of pharaoh Khufu. This article presents the results of a new study of the stone carried out in Edinburgh in April of 2013, with permission granted by National Museums Scotland. The stone was originally brought to Edinburgh in 1872 for Charles Piazzi Smyth who was interested to study the principles of its dimensions and proportions. This new study demonstrates that when appropriately investigated, the stone reveals significant information about its original position on the Great Pyramid, as well as information regarding the Ancient Egyptians' own systems of measurement and architectural construction. The article also addresses the symbolic significance of the principal dimensions of this stone, and the monument on which it was placed.

Published 24 September 2016 1232 Views 118 Downloads

A look through his window: the sanctuary of the divine Apis Bull at Memphis (p. 57)

N. Marković

The divine Apis bulls were kept, lived, died, and were prepared for burial within the building complex known as the Place of Apis, somewhere in the vicinity of the main temple of Ptah at Memphis. Unfortunately, its exact location and layout are yet to be identified on site since large parts of the Ptah temple enclosure today lie under the modern settlement of Mit Rahina. Yet, since the Place of Embalmment has already been discovered in the south-western corner of the Ptah temple precinct, the rest of the sanctuary must have been located nearby. The purpose of this article is to propose a completely new layout for the sanctuary of Apis based on all available source material in order to connect parts of the burial ritual, known as the Apis Embalming Ritual, with actual localities inside the sanctuary itself.

Published 1 November 2016 1055 Views 112 Downloads

Les constructions axiales thoutmosides devant le 4e pylône de Karnak (p. 71)

F. Larché

Hatshepsut Ma'atkare spectacularly monumentalized the two main entrances to the temple of Karnak. To the south she built the 8th pylon, and to the west the 4th pylon as well as a pylon further to the west which has not survived. After her disappearance, Thutmosis III transformed both of these entrances. He had the 7th pylon erected on the southern entry way, and this article proposes that he also installed two pairs of obelisks to the west, between the 4th pylon and the obelisks already erected by Hatshepsut Ma'atkare (with the name of Tuthmosis II). The analysis indicates that this transformation was completed by his successor Amenhotep II, who also built a calcite chapel between the two pairs of obelisks. This chapel was in turn dismantled by his son, Thutmosis IV, at the time of the construction of his portico court.

Published 28 November 2016 511 Views 91 Downloads

Submissions are open for the 2017 issue !

New Open Access Journal: Newsletter of TAU Archaeology

Newsletter of TAU Archaeology
The Jacob M. Alkow Department of Archaeology and Ancient Near Eastern Cultures and the Sonia and Marco Nadler Institute of Archeology
Tel Aviv University
January 2017 
The newsletter of the Sonia and Marco Nadler Institute of Archaeology and the Department of Archaeology and Near Eastern Cultures, Tel-Aviv University, is a great opportunity to present the people, the achievements, the research and publications, conducted in the largest and most dynamic archaeological institution operating in Israel today, both in the quantity and quality of research.

The mission of the Institute and the Department is to study and to teach the archaeology of the Land of Israel, the Levant and the major Ancient Near Eastern cultures (Egyptian, Mesopotamian and
Anatolian) in pre- and proto-historic times, in the Bronze and Iron Ages, and up to the classical periods...

We hope that this newsletter will reflect our activities and achievements, our research, teaching, publications and our students, and will present the people who stand behind them. They, after all, are our real treasure.

Open Access Journal: Ancient Asia: Journal of the Society of South Asian Archaeology

[First posted in AWOL 13 November 2009. Updated 21 December 2016]

Ancient Asia: Journal of the Society of South Asian Archaeology
ISSN: 2042-5937
Ancient Asia is the official annual journal of the Society of South Asian Archaeology (SOSAA). The scope of the journal is vast - from Stone Age to the Modem times, including archaeology, history, anthropology, art, architecture, numismatics, iconography, ethnography, various scientific aspects including archaeobotany and archaeozoology, and theoretical and methodological issues. Amongst the goals of this society are to bring forth the research being conducted in areas that are not often well published such as the North Eastern States of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Central Asia, Iran, etc.

La Prospection archéologique de la vallée du Nil au Sud de la cataracte de Dal (Nubie soudanaise)

La Prospection archéologique de la vallée du Nil au Sud de la cataracte de Dal (Nubie soudanaise)
André Vila
Paris : Centre national de la recherche scientifique
In 1969, a cultural agreement was concluded between the French and Sudanese Governments. On the basis of a protocol included in that agreement, a French Archaeological Research Unit, the SFDAS (Section Française de la Direction des Antiquités du Soudan) was established in the Sudan Antiquities Service to carry out archaeological research in Sudan in collaboration with the NCAM (National Corporation for Antiquities and Museums). This partnership immediately focused on the main priority at the time, namely to perform a survey in the Northern Province of the country, as it was the most endangered area after the building of the Aswan High Dam. With these 15 volumes, ten years of research (1975-1985) published by SFDAS in Sudan are made available to a broader audience, in open-access PDFs.

Open Access Journal: İDOL arkeoloji ve arkeologlar derneği dergisi

Open Access Journal: Anabases: Traditions et Réceptions de l’Antiquité

[First posted in AWOL 20 December 2011. Updated 22 December 2016]

Anabases: Traditions et Réceptions de l’Antiquité
ISSN électronique: 2256-9421
Depuis sa naissance en mars 2005, Anabases se veut une revue internationale, transdisciplinaire et comparatiste portant sur la réception et les traditions de l’Antiquité à travers le temps. En bref : qu’advient-il de l’Antiquité après l’Antiquité ?

La démarche interculturelle – qui est à la base des problématiques de l’équipe É.R.A.S.M.E. – sous-tend une perspective transversale dans trois registres d’analyse : 1) entre disciplines, comme l’histoire, la philosophie, les littératures, l’archéologie, les sciences politiques ; 2) entre aires culturelles touchant la Méditerranée, l’Europe, le Proche-Orient et le Moyen-Orient ; 3) entre périodes, depuis l’Antiquité jusqu’au très contemporain. 

Derniers numéros

Numéros en texte intégral

Open Access Journal: Revista Atlántica-Mediterránea de Prehistoria y Arqueología Social

[First posted in AWOL 25 January 2010, updated 22 December 2016]

Revista Atlántica-Mediterránea de Prehistoria y Arqueología Social
ISSN: 1138-9435
Revista Atlántica-Mediterránea de Prehistoria y Arqueología Social es una publicación de periodicidad anual. Es una revistaq que, desde un encuadre posicional en la "Arqueología Social", está abierta a trabajos que potencien el debate intelectual.



Open Access Journal: Rursus: Poiétique, réception et réécriture des textes antiques

[First posted in AWOL 6 January 2009. Updated 23 December 2016]

Rursus: Poiétique, réception et réécriture des textes antiques
ISSN électronique 1951-669X
La revue numérique Rursus est consacrée à des études portant sur la récriture. Elle a été conçue par les chercheurs de langues anciennes de l’Université de Nice, réunis de 2003 à 2007 dans la jeune équipe LA.LI.A, et est aujourd'hui publiée par le CEPAM (UMR 6130). La littérature dite ‘au second degré’ n’est pas une zone érudite, marginale, voire décadente du champ littéraire, mais la clé même de ce champ, puisque le régime original et originel de l’écriture est le second degré. Cette conviction d’une nature foncièrement hypertextuelle de la création n’est pas un dogme mais une attention de fond aux facteurs de mutation, de détournement et de renouvellement de la tradition.

Open Access Journal: Litterae Caelestes

Litterae Caelestes
ISSN: 1825-9189
Litterae Caelestes is an international peer-reviewed journal of paleography, codicology, diplomatics, and the history of written records. It includes scholarly articles, brief communications, reviews of articles and books, and reports on work in progress. Each issue is richly illustrated and fully indexed.
One issue appears each year. The print version is produced in Italy. This digital version is produced in collaboration with the Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies (CMRS) at UCLA.

Open Access Publication of the Proceedings of the 2nd ICAANE

Proceedings of the 2nd ICAANE
Ingolf Thuesen, Editor
The 2 ICAANE drew some 500-600 participants and a rich set of presentations, which are here published in two volumes, organized in 7 sections. The first 5 sections are included in vol. 1: (1) The Environment; (2) Images of Gods and Humans; (3) The Tell; (4) Excavation Reports and Summaries; and (5) Varia (Chronology, Technology, and Artifacts). Vol. 2 comprises two sections, both on archaeology of the Islamic era.
Published in:
OrientLab Special Issues
The Special Issues of OrientLab are open access publications on the ancient Near East that neither belong to a specific series nor follow a standard format. Works by individual authors will be peer-reviewed; collective works will be accepted with reserve by the Editor, provided they meet scholarly standars and the criterium of the usefulness to the scientific community.
Further Information on the International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East

Program of the 2nd ICAANE, Copenhagen, 22-26 May 2000


 [First posted in AWOL 27 February 2013, updates 24 December 2016]

A project by Franco Montanari   
Aristarchus (from the name of the learned scholar Aristarchus of Samothracia, not to get confused with the astronomer Aristarchus of Samos) is a web site which includes a set of working tools for research and teaching in the subject area of Greek and Latin ancient world:

 -  The Lessico dei Grammatici Greci Antichi (LGGA) i.e. Lexicon of Ancient Greek Grammarians, provides an online reference database designed particularly for studies on the history of ancient philology, grammar and scholarship. The project is developed at the Dipartimento di Archeologia e Filologia Classica (D.AR.FI.CL.ET.) of the University of Genova. The lexicon consists of files on the personalities who variously contributed to erudite and philological-grammatical research in ancient world. Many files are yet available for download in pdf format, some others can be requested via e-mail.

 -  The database Poorly Attested Words in Ancient Greek (PAWAG) is a supplement in progress of the main printed dictionaries of Ancient Greek. It is kept constantly increased and updated by an international team of scholars, in order to provide an archive of Ancient Greek words that are either only scantily attested (i.e. in a small number of occurrences), inadequately (i.e. characterized by some sort of uncertainty) or in any case problematically, both from a formal and semantic point of view. Corrections and improvements concerning the entries of the GI and LSJ dictionaries are taken in too. This project is coordinated by a research group of the Dipartimento di Archeologia e Filologia Classica (D.AR.FI.CL.ET.) of the University of Genova in partnership with Loescher Editore.

 -  The Catalogus Philologorum Classicorum (CPhCl) is an encyclopaedic lexicon that collects the biographies and the bibliographies of modern classical scholars. It involves an international network of local units; they are coordinated by the central unit, hosted by the Dipartimento di Archeologia e Filologia Classica (D.AR.FI.CL.ET.) of the University of Genova.

 -  The Centro Italiano dell'Année Philologique (CIAPh) is the Italian editorial office of the Année Philologique, the well known reference bibliography for scholars of Greek and Latin antiquity. Founded in Paris in 1928, the Année Philologique counts on an international organization, networking the main office of Paris, the Italian Centre of Genova, Cincinnati for the USA and UK, Heidelberg for Germany and Austria, Granada for Spain, producing every year a printed volume and an on-line database.

 -  The aim of the site Scholia Minora in Homerum is to provide up-to-date listing, descriptions, editions and digital images of the so-called Scholia Minora to the Iliad and Odyssey on papyrus. We project to keep the list of papyri up-to-date and to offer editions with apparatus of parallel passages of all the papyri.

 -  MEDIACLASSICA is a web site for didactics of the ancient Greek and Latin languages, carried out by a group of scholars and teachers working in the Dipartimento di Archeologia e Filologia Classica (D.AR.FI.CL.ET.) of the University of Genova in partnership with Loescher Editore.

Open Access Journal: EXARC Journal

[First posted in AWOL 19 February 2013, updated 24 December 2016]
EXARC Journal
ISSN: 2212-8956
The leading journal for those involved in experimental archaeology or archaeological open-air museums, featuring the latest developments in fieldwork, academic research, museum studies and living historyinterpretation.
EXARC is the ICOM* Affiliated Organisation representing archaeological open-air museums and experimental archaeology. EXARC raises the standard of scientific research and public presentation among our membership through collaborative projects, conferences and publications.

Open Access Journal: Panta Re: Revista digital de ciencia y didáctica de la Historia

Panta Re: Revista digital de ciencia y didáctica de la Historia 
ISSN (electrónico): 2386-8864
ISSN (en papel): 1136-2464.

La revista Panta Rei ha vuelto a entrar en movimiento. Y lo ha hecho completamente renovada, pero con una filosofía en lo esencial exactamente igual a la que la vio nacer allá por el año 1993. El río en el que nos sumergimos ahora es distinto, más amplio y ambicioso, esperando que llegue al mayor número de público posible.

Con este fin, os hacemos partícipes de nuestro proyecto. Queda abierta la convocatoria para la recepción de trabajos susceptibles de ser publicados en lo que será el segundo volumen de la nueva época de la revista PANTA REI (2015). Dicha recepción se realizará en el período comprendido desde la publicación de la presente convocatoria hasta el 31 de mayo de 2015. Los trabajos recibidos con posterioridad a esa fecha serán susceptibles de publicarse en el siguiente número.

La fórmula de envío, así como los requisitos y condiciones que deben cumplir los trabajos, están recogidos en el apartado “Normas de publicación” de esta misma página.

Open Access Journal: Classica et Christiana

[First posted in AWOL 16 July 2010. Updated 26 December 2016]

Classica et Christiana
ISSN: 1842-3043
Obiectivele revistei:
 Classica et Christiana, editată de Centrul de Studii Clasice şi Creştine al Facultăţii de Istorie a Universităţii “Al. I. Cuza” din Iaşi, are drept obiective publicarea unor contribuţii semnate de specialişti români şi străini dedicate atât domeniilor tradiţionale de cercetare a clasicismului greco-roman (istorie antică, filologie clasică, epigrafie greco-latină etc.), cât şi promovarea unor direcţii mai recente, precum Antichitatea târzie, patristica, viaţa cotidiană în Antichitatea greco-latină şi creştină, antropologia culturală a lumii clasice şi creştine timpurii ş.a.
The aims of the journal:
Classica et Christiana, published by the Center for Christian and Classical Studies of the Faculty of History, “Al. I. Cuza” University Iasi, aims the publication of contributions signed by Romanian and foreign researchers devoted to the traditional areas of research of the Greco-Roman classicism (ancient history, classical philology, Greek and Latin epigraphy, etc.), but also the promotion of the latest directions, like Late Antiquity, patristic, daily life in Greco-Latin Antiquity and Christian, cultural anthropology of the early classical and Christian world etc.