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Commodity Prices in Babylon 385 - 61 BC

Commodity Prices in Babylon 385 - 61 BC 
Author: R.J. van der Spek 
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
The datafile:spreadsheet(.xls, 1.15 Mb)   |   Bibliography
1. Introduction
The economic historian of the Ancient World is confronted with a lack of numerical data on wages and prices. There is of course evidence (see in general HEICHELHEIM 1930), especially from Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt (DREXHAGE 1991; MARESCH 1996; CADELL & LE RIDER 1997) and Delos (REGER 1994), but not on a regular year to year basis. However, there is one notable exception: late Achaemenid and Hellenistic Babylon. From this city in South Iraq we have the most detailed dataset of the ancient world, which can compete with datasets from modern history.

1.1. The sources
We owe this precious information to the conscientious work of Babylonian astronomers. Probably from the reign of the Babylonian king Nabonassar (747-743 BC), and at the instigation of this king, Babylonian astronomers started to make a daily record of the starry sky. These astronomers were professional scholars. From a tablet in Yale (YBC 11549) dating to the early Hellenistic period we know that at least 14 of them were fully employed by the temple. They each received 180 litres of barley per month (BEAULIEU, forthcoming). From a couple of very late texts (127-119 BC) we know that the job was hereditary on condition that the scholars were capable to do the job. They received an annual salary from the temple (60 - 120 shekels of silver = ca. 120 - 240 drachms = 500 to 1,000 grams of silver) plus the revenue of some tract of arable land (VAN DER SPEK 1985: 548ff). It is interesting to see how the payment in grain shifted to payment in money.

The records, usually called Astronomical Diaries, consisted of daily information on the position of the moon (rise and setting) and the planets in relation to the fixed stars, and from the early fifth century in relation to zodiacal signs. In addition, solstices and equinoxes, Sirius phenomena, meteors, comets and flashes and strokes of lightning were recorded. The diaries give also information on the weather (e.g. "clouds were in the sky; I could not watch") and the level of the Euphrates. At the end of a monthly section some historical events were recorded (mainly on campaigns of the king, visits of the king or high officials to Babylon, cultic events, etc.) and the prices of six commodities were given: barley, dates, "mustard?", "cress?", sesame and wool. Barley and dates constituted the main diet of the Babylonians. For more information on the diaries, see: Astronomical diaries.
The earliest diary we have dates to 651 BC, but we have only a more or less regular record from 385 BC on. Hence, our list starts in this year. Michael Jursa (Vienna) is presently studying the prices of the earlier periods of Babylonia. He is the leader of a project on the economy of first millennium Babylonia. More on this project: Wittgenstein-Preisträger.
Dr. Gerfrid Müller has written a Habilitationsschrift about the development of the economy and the prices in the period just prior to our dataset (MÜLLER, forthcoming; non vidi)...

Réseaux sociaux et contraintes dans l'Antiquité Tardive. Actes de la journée d'études (Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, 27 juin 2013)

Revue des Études Tardo-antiques Supplément 1 (2013-2014)
Réseaux sociaux et contraintes dans l'Antiquité Tardive. Actes de la journée d'études (Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, 27 juin 2013)édités par ARIANE BODIN et TIPHAINE  MOREAU, juillet 2014, 331 p. (ISSN 2115-8266).
[publication en ligne : 21/07/2014]


 Préface par Ariane Bodin et Tiphaine Moreau - p. 3-6.



Contraintes et réseaux familiaux
AbstractThe question of the constraint in the familial strategies appears as a good instrument to detect the tensions within the familial networks. It is not easy to know if the constraints has increased at the end of the Antiquity, in the case of the ascetic vocations as the young girls’ kidnappings. The same goes for the conflicts’ intensity. If the resistance of young ascetics against the parental authority appears as a topos of the hagiographical texts, some modern historians see only about it a rhetorical trick and stress on the contrary the strategies of évitement and wait-and-see policy, of the parents as the children. The familial network mobilized on occasions was restricted to the nuclear family and the close collaterals, but the father did not really control all the process, because of the effective wife’s role.

AbstractEven though during the Roman Republic the pagan Roman aristocrats were used to remind the social origin of a grandfather or great-grandfather to establish their legitimacy, the Christian clerics of the late antique period would brag about their female ancestors to build up a Christian family history. From the mid-fourth century, they sang the praises of all the family members who were said to have deliberately chosen the second conversion, i. e. asceticism and chastity.In 1987, Claude Lepelley asserted that Augustine had no choice but to convert to Christianity in 386, and after him, we shall analyse whether the family members of clerics had other options than to choose sanctum propositum.The network approach was useful as it helps avoiding clerical discourses, that tended to present the second conversion as a purely individual and spiritual path. But these people were inserted into a Christian network that seemed to give them a little latitude. This paper shall examine some families of late-antique Italian and African bishops, including those of Damasus of Rome, Ambrose of Milan, Augustine of Hippo and Gregory the Great.

AbstractThis study deals with the usurpations which affected the Gallic dioceses during the fifth century and especially on their repercussions on the destiny of the plotters’ progeny and parents. Having in one’s gens a plotter or even a usurper compelled to set up diverse strategies to live down or bowdlerize this embarrassing episod and, at the end, to get back central autorities’ favours and to keep one’s place into the Gallic aristocratic groups. This compromising past had various consequences from one man to the other. After a probationary time, some of them could access leading political offices anew because they had succeeded in repositioning themselves in aristocratic groups and in regaining central power’s trust. Others, less visible in the sources, had less favorable fates since they were excluded from the political scene and from the most influent aristocratic groups. Therefore, this study will try to highlight the variety of such career paths.

Contraintes comportementales au sein des réseaux
AbstractThis study looks at books 14 to 16 of Ammianus Marcellinus’ Res Gestae; it investigates the various compulsions that evolve from the social networks of officials under Constantius II between 353 and 357. As a protector domesticus attached to the magister equitum Ursicinus, the Antiochene historian Ammianus is a keen observer, who himself is involved in social interactions at the highest level of the Roman state. Hostile to the Emperor Constantius (337-361) and favorable to his immediate successor Julian (361-363), Ammianus offers us a dedicated and critical perspective on the social networks of the Roman elite. For Ammianus, social coercion results from interactions and behaviour that he considers unjust, inappropriate, and detrimental forgroups of elite individuals, whether they are connected through official hierarchies, family ties, or personal relationships. He argues that cruelty, injustice, and the vices of those in power - Constantius, Gallus and their officials - create fatal compulsions within the networks of social relations.

Otium et decus. Les contraintes du « devoir de loisir » dans les réseaux aristocratiques de l'Occident romain tardif (IVe - Ve s. ap. J.-C.) - p. 137-156.
AbstractThis article analyses the function of domestic leisure in the “being” and “seeming” of aristocracies of Late Antiquity in the West. In order to outline a new approach to the « ideology of otium», and its importance in belonging to an aristocratic network, this scheduling article seeks to connect the political rhetoric and use of the concept of otium with descriptions of concrete practices of leisure. I would consider domestic leisure as an issue of social and cultural changes of Late Antiquity.

Contraintes chez les lettrés et les fonctionnaires impériaux 

Réseau social de Libanios à travers sa Correspondance et les contraintes de la rhétorique- p. 159-176.
AbstractBasing on some 1544 Libanius’letters (dated from 355 to 365 and from 388 to 393) which have come down to us, we can gather information about the relationships between the Antiochian rhetorician, devoted to the civic ideal, and the other members of the Eastern society, sophists, students, civil servants, ministers, princes’ advisors etc. They maintain ties of different kinds, such as friendship, intellectual complicity and common service. But the letters obey strict literary rules, as it is defined by epistolary tracts, and social duties. Due to the interdependance of networks, one needs diplomatic skills and cleverness. The purpose of such networks may be direct (e. g. letters of recommendations), or indirect, glorifying the recipient and shaping the author’s self-image, the henceforth immortal Libanius.

AbstractThe coercion on religious life exercised by late antique emperors has often been studied from a merely institutional point of view. It should not be forgotten, however, that the emperor was also able to mobilize social networks in order to ensure the enactment of his decisions. Taking as its starting point volumes II and III of the Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire by J. R. Martindale, this study will focus on the lay representatives of the emperor. It shows that all the dignitaries and officials were concerned with religious policy. Whilst this confirms the sanctity of the court, acts of religious coercion take on different forms according to the hierarchy of courtiers. In addition, individual religious beliefs and geographical origins played a role in the emperor’s choice of his representative. Finally, we will consider the real failures of imperial power in the field of religious coercion.

Pouvoirs et contraintes religieuses
AbstractThis article focuses on the part played by Ambrose of Milan in the construction of an episcopal network in Northern Italy which was supposed to fight against Arianism. To control of these new bishops, whose sees had been recently created, Ambrose took advantage of unequal relations between debtors and creditor produced by the episcopal election. The letters clearly reflect how Ambrose made use of these bishops who were in his debt (Felix of Como, Bassianus of Lodi, Gaudence of Brescia) so as to achieve the objectives of the network. By taking its inspiration from the patronus-cliens relationship and from the aristocratic amicitia, the ambrosian leadership maintained the cohesion of this network that was a centralized and hierarchical one, though made up of peers from an ecclesiastical point of view.

Contrainte(s) et réseau(x) dans les Vies des saints orientaux de Jean d’Éphèse - p. 241-272.
AbstractThe Lives of the Eastern Saints by John of Ephesus (507-586) is one of the main sources at our disposal in Syriac language which allows us to know anti-chalcedonian circles. Closely related to the miaphysite sphere, John of Ephesus nevertheless strictly converted to the chalcedonian doctrine the populations of Asia Minor that Justinian had entrusted him to (re) convert. Thus, John of Ephesus gives us both an inner and external outlook upon the miaphysite movement. The pressure is exerted in different ways on the antichalcedonian circles, affecting them at several levels. Following the Concile of Chalcedon (451), whole provinces go over to miaphysitism. The emperors’ policies concerning anti-chalcedonians waver between expressions of Union and periods of coercion and repression, which gradually push miaphysites to organize themselves into networks to survive. The birth of these networks thus depends on the constraints bearing on these communities. One should not forget however the other side of the coin, that is the constraints or obligations that these new networks impose on their members. First of all, we will see how, according to John of Ephesus, the miaphysite network was born under constraints and how the constraints that gradually weighed on the network led to the diversification of the initial network, causing its splitting into several entities and the (re)definition of distinct lines of doctrinal thought. Secondly we will examine the constraints exerted within every community organized as a network, in order to examine what the specificity of the miaphysite identity might be. The study of the link between constraint and network in the Lives of the Eastern Saints by John of Ephesus allows us to consider how a writer presents the elaboration of a network. There still remains to know how far this process of interiorization of the constraints implies a conscious project of propaganda and to what extent John of Ephesus is one of the leading elements in this ideological construction.

AbstractEugippius’ Vita Seuerini features un peculiar model of leadership in the end of the 5th century. Indeed Severinus, though concealing his aristocrat origin and refusing to accept any institutional position, both civil and ecclesiastical, constrains roman ciues and even Rugi from the cities of Noricum to adopt new religious and social practices (fasting, praying, paying tithe). A careful examination of the document shows that he places himself in the centre of a network, not because he would simply create links with the network members, but because each link he builds allows him to strengthen another link. Thus he manages to give a coercive force to his “advices” by systematically backing them on the intervention of a third party, who clasps the one to whom the order was given in a binding network of constraint.

AbstractCould Jewish judges have had a strong hold on their litigants in the context of Roman hegemony? Since the beginning of the Principate, the Roman Legislation had ruled that the ius gladii exclusively belonged to the provincial tribunals. But there was a gap between these official statements and their local application. As recent scholars have pointed out, municipal magistrates and sub-political communities settled disputes not only in minores but also in majores causae, with the use of coercive forces. In Palestine, during the 3rd and the 4th centuries, rabbinic judges seem to have forced defendants to appear in court and to have enforced judgments, even if, as Hayim Lapin suggests, this power was « episodic and rather fragile ». Another question should also be raised, what would have been the power of Jewish judges, other than the rabbis, the patriarchs, who were the leaders of synagogal communities in the provinces? We hold an imperial constitution given in 392 in Constantinople that ruled they were allowed to settle disputes in religious matters. Such a delimitation could not function as an efficient guarantee for the Jewish courts as religious Jewish rules dealt not only with ritual and purity but also with civil and penal matters. Indeed conflicts of laws and jurisdictions persisted after 392, as attested by imperial constitutions from 393 and 398. The actual power of the judges strongly depended on circumstance and in particular on the political relays and social networks they could activate in both the provincial and central administrations.

 Réseaux sociaux et contraintes dans l'Antiquité Tardive- p. 307-331.

Open Access Journal: Zeitschrift für Indologie und Iranistik

Open Access Journal: Prazské egyptologické studie PES

 [First posted in AWOL 3 October 2009, updated 23 July 2014]

Prazské egyptologické studie PES
ISSN: 1214-3189
Pražské egyptologické studie (PES) jsou odborným časopisem vydávaným Českým egyptologickým ústavem FF UK. Časopis vychází pravidelně od roku 2002. V roce 2011 se stal recenzovaným periodikem. Posláním Pražských egyptologických studií je informovat českou a slovenskou veřejnost především o současných (nejen archeologických) výzkumech na území Egypta a Súdánu. První rubrika je proto věnovaná zprávám z terénního výzkumu, případně z konferencí a jiných zajímavých akcí. Další část představují jednotlivé studie zaměřené na různé aspekty dějin starověkého Egypta a bádání o něm, v nichž je záběr egyptologického bádání rozšířen díky příspěvkům z oborů historie, orientalistiky a přírodních věd.

Open Access Journal: British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan (BMSAES)

[First posted in AWOL 8 October 2009. Updated 23 July 2014]

British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan (BMSAES)
ISSN: 2049-5021 (on-line)
The British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan(BMSAES) is a peer-reviewed, academic journal dedicated to presenting research on all aspects of ancient Egypt and Sudan and the representation of these cultures in modern times.
BMSAES is open-access: all articles in this journal can be viewed and downloaded free-of-charge.
This journal offers scholars the opportunity to include a large number of colour images, and other multimedia content, where appropriate to the article. Accepted papers will be published as soon as possible: there is no defined publication schedule or deadlines, as with print journals. The articles do not need to concern British Museum objects or projects.
For more open access publications of the British Museum, see here.

The Hellespont Project: Integrating Arachne and Perseus

The Hellespont Project: Integrating Arachne and Perseus
As a partner of the German Archaeological Institute, the CoDArchLab cooperates with the Perseus Digital Library at Tufts University to combine the digital collections of classical studies of both institutions. Thus one of the most comprehensive and free online collections of Greek and Roman antiquity will be available for public and scientific use.

The basis of the Hellespont Project is the combination of text and object data using the metadata format CIDOC CRM. The CRM mapping of the Arachne database is part of other projects of the CoDArchLab carried out at the moment. The use of CIDOC CRM to map ancient text content in order to build a bridge to other types of sources is a methodological innovation. 

The material world in Thucydides'Pentecontaetia (Thuc. 1,89 to 1,118) is the chosen starting point for the integration of both data sets; other parts of the text will follow at a later stage.

One task of the project consists in manually identifying entities representing categories in the archaeological and textual evidence (e.g. built spaces, topography, individual persons, populations) within the whole text of Thucydides'Pentecontaetia. These entities will be annotated according to the TEI guidelines, so as to enrich the text simultaneously with historical background information.
Event annotation is also performed simultaneously, taking as a basis the mainly discussed historical events of the text in modern research literature. At this level of analysis, the word strings annotated with TEI markup represent historical events according to the description of the ancient author, which finally ended in the political and military conflict between Athens and Sparta (Peloponnesian War). In the following part of the project, the main content of Thucydides' text will be mapped using the event-based CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model with reference to these word strings.

At the same time, supported by a CHS/DAI joint fellowship, the narrative and discursive structure of the text, as well as all its relevant linguistic features, are also being annotated. One of the goals of the linguistic annotation is to provide a more solid background for the aforementioned task of event identification. The linguistic annotation of Thucydides' Histories is performed according to the guidelines of the Ancient Greek Dependency Treebank, which provide a word-by-word analysis of the morphological and syntactical features of the text. A further level of linguistic analysis, namely the so-called "tectogrammatical annotation" on semantic and pragmatic aspects which are necessary to understand the event structure of a text, will be tested following the model of the Prague Dependency Treebank.

Furthermore, to open up the broader historical context of the related sources, we explore the idea of a VRE combining archaeological and philological data with secondary research literature and in particular journal articles, that will be collected in an automized way. This part of the research is carried out in the context of a PhD project at the Department of Digital Humanities at King's College (formerly the Centre for Computing in the Humanities) since January 2011 and in close cooperation with the Thucydides Project at the CoDArchLab. The combination of all available sources on a historical topic by means of a single Virtual Research Environment (VRE) will open up new perspectives and modes of research of the ancient greek and roman world.

Starting from October 2010, the project has been funded for three years by the NEH / DFG Bilateral Digital Humanities Program 'Enriching Digital Collections' that offers support for cooperations between U.S. and German scientists to develop research-related digitization projects for the humanities. Each of these projects will be jointly run by an American and a German institution.

Pinakes Πίνακες: Textes et manuscrits grecs

 [First posted in AWOL 6 July 2011, updated 23 July 2014]

Pinakes Πίνακες: Textes et manuscrits grecs

Nouvelle version de Pinakes !

Une nouvelle version de Pinakes a été développée et mise en ligne en mars 2014. Celle-ci présente de nouvelles fonctionnalités permettant de mieux décrire les textes et les manuscrits et, à terme, de faire de Pinakes un portail sur les manuscrits grecs. Les principales innovations sont les suivantes :
  • ajout d’une fonctionnalité de recherche croisée permettant la recherche de cooccurrence des textes dans les manuscrits ;
  • précision accrue dans la description codicologique et textuelle des manuscrits, sans pour autant viser à un catalogage détaillé ; un module de catalogage propre, adossé à la base, sera mis en ligne dans l’année qui vient ;
  • intégration directe des liens et des références bibliographiquesà tous les niveaux de la base, permettant de structurer les ressources sur les bibliothèques, les catalogues et les numérisations de manuscrits grecs jusqu’ici accessibles à travers la page de liens.
Toutes ces informations ne seront que progressivement renseignées et harmonisées ; pendant la phase de transition, l'utilisateur rencontrera un certain nombre d'incohérences dans la base.
Avant toute utilisation, consulter le mode d’emploi (pas encore mis à jour).


La base Pinakes rassemble la tradition manuscrite des textes grecs antérieurs au XVIe siècle, principalement à partir des catalogues des bibliothèques du monde entier.
Elle a été constituée à partir de 1971 au Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies de Toronto. Depuis 1993, la Section grecque de l’Institut de recherche et d’histoire des textes, à Paris, en assure la gestion et continue à l’enrichir.
La base a été mise en ligne pour la première fois en 2008.


Le dépouillement systématique d'un certain nombre de périodiques est désormais assuré par la Section grecque, à partir de 2010. Pour plus d'informations sur les ouvrages dépouillés, voir la page de Présentation.
Si vous souhaitez que vos publications soient rapidement référencées dans la base, merci de nous les faire parvenir (IRHT – section grecque, 52 rue du Cardinal Lemoine, 75005 Paris, France ; section.grecque@irht.cnrs.fr).
N’hésitez pas non plus à nous signaler toute publication ou revue dont l’ajout vous semblerait souhaitable : nous prendrons en compte votre suggestion, dans la mesure des moyens humains disponibles.


Avec le développement de la nouvelle version de Pinakes, la saisie des manuscrits hagiographiques est désormais facilitée. Les données sur les manuscrits hagiographiques qui seront progressivement versées dans la base proviennent en grande partie du fichier de la Société des Bollandistes, fruit de plus d’un siècle de dépouillement. Elles seront saisies grâce à un financement du labex Resmed.
Nous restons par ailleurs ouverts à toute proposition de collaboration pour l'enrichissement et la correction des données concernant les manuscrits ainsi que pour le développement de la bibliographie  (voir Révision des données). N'hésitez pas non plus à nous signaler des erreurs ou des propositions de correction.

Open Access Journal: ‘Atiqot

 [First posted 10/31/10, most recently updated24 July 2014]

[Open Access after registration]
'Atiqot is the refereed journal of the Israel Antiquities Authority. It is published four times a year. The contents of the printed version is uploaded to the e-journal website. No changes are made to articles post-publication. The printed journal is available via the IAA website.

For details on how to submit, see our Guide to Contributors.

Range of Topics.‘Atiqot covers a large chronological span, from prehistory up to the Ottoman period. Excavations are studied from various aspects and disciplines—often the result of the close interaction between researchers of the IAA and outside specialists. Thus, a report should include, in addition to the stratigraphic analysis, comprehensive treatments of the archaeological data, including studies of the various groups of finds,such as ceramics, glass, stone and metal objects, coins, jewelry, textiles, etc., as well as the geological, botanical, faunal and anthropological evidence. Laboratory analyses, such as petrography, radiocarbon dating and metallurgy, should be included where relevant.

The archaeological data published in ‘Atiqot are not confined to a specific range of periods or topics, but to a geographical area—the Land of Israel—which has been influenced by almost every ancient culture that existed in the Levant. The journal thus presents comprehensive research on the region and its connections with the neighboring countries. The publication is devoted to final reports and shorter articles, although occasionally a volume is dedicated to a particular topic (e.g., burial caves, agricultural installations), period (e.g., prehistoric, Islamic) or site (e.g., Acre, Jerusalem).

Excavation Reports. The papers published in ‘Atiqot are primarily the result of salvage excavations conducted by the IAA. Their results are sometimes unexpectedly important, filling in gaps that could not be understood by localized studies of the larger tells. ‘Atiqot is one of the few vehicles for imparting this important data and therefore a primary asset to any scholar in archaeology.

Bilingual Journal. The journal is bilingual, publishing articles in English or Hebrew; all Hebrew reports are accompanied by English summaries keyed to illustrations in the main text.
Past Issues

Wiki Loves Monuments Italia: Un concorso fotografico che valorizza il patrimonio culturale italiano su Wikipedia

Wiki Loves Monuments Italia: Un concorso fotografico che valorizza il patrimonio culturale italiano su Wikipedia
Wiki Loves Monuments Italia
Il 2014è l’anno della terza edizione di Wiki Loves Monuments Italia, il concorso fotografico che potenzia la visibilità dei monumenti e invita ciascuno ad essere protagonista nel documentare, valorizzare e tutelare il patrimonio culturale. Comune denominatore delle immagini che possono partecipare a Wiki Loves Monuments è il soggetto degli scatti: un monumento.
Con il termine monumento si fa riferimento ad un vastissimo genere di opere: edifici, sculture, siti archeologici, strutture architettoniche, siti naturali e interventi dell’uomo sulla natura che hanno grande valore dal punto di vista artistico, storico, estetico, etnografico e scientifico.
Come per le passate edizioni, gli obiettivi principali del progetto sono:
  • valorizzare e documentare l’immenso patrimonio culturale italiano, promuovendone la ricchezza artistico-culturale presso una vasta platea internazionale,
  • invitare tutti i cittadini a documentare la propria eredità culturale, realizzando fotografie con licenza libera, nel pieno rispetto del diritto d’autore e della legislazione italiana,
  • aumentare la consapevolezza della necessità di tutela dei monumenti, preservandone la memoria.
Wiki Loves Monuments is a photographic contest which improves the visibility of monuments and invites everyone to be a protagonist in the documentation, valorization and conservation of cultural heritage.
In Italy, Wiki Loves Monuments contributes with the involvement of volunteers and istitutions to the creation of a list of cultural goods with identification codes released under a free license, to the production of Wikipedia pages and images for Wikimedia Commons.
The photo taken in Italy for the contest must follow the “Code Urbani”, the Italia Code of Cultural Heritage and Landscape, which states that to publish a photograph of any Italian monument, even those whose copyright has expired, you must obtain permission from the “legitimate owner”; the permission usually requires the payment of a fee if the pictures are not for personal use.
In order to publish pictures of Italian cultural heritage and landscape, people must therefore knock on the door of all the entities involved (Ministry, curators, regions, provinces, metropolitan cities, municipalities and private entities) to discover the legitimate owners. A massive undertaking, but the team of Wikimedia Italy, organizer of the Italian branch of the contest, does not give up and finds a lot of partners.

The italian contest has some specific regulations and its winners will partecipate as finalists in the international contest.
The rules to partecipate are the following:
  1. You need to have a valid e-mail address.
  2. You have to be the author of the pictures you upload.
  3. Pictures have to be uploaded during september (from the first of the month ‘till the 30th).
  4. Pictures have to be released under a CC-BY-SA license.
  5. The subject of the pictures has to be one of the italian monuments from the lists.
  6. Pictures have to contain the indentification code of the depicted monument.
  7. You can partecipate with as many pictures as you wish.
  8. There are no limitations or rules about the resolution and manipulation of the pictures.
  9. You can also partecipate with old pictures, but you still have to be the author of them.

Epigrafia 3D

Epigrafia 3D
 Esta web y todos sus recursos forman parte del proyecto proyecto FCT-13-6025 "Descifrando inscripciones romanas en 3D: Ciencia epigráfica virtual", financiado por la Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología – Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad y la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, dentro de la convocatoria de ayudas para el fomento de la cultura científica y de la innovación del año 2013.

Investigador responsable: Manuel Ramírez Sánchez (Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Instituto Universitario de Análisis y Aplicaciones Textuales).

La reforma del Museo Arqueológico Nacional, cuyas salas se reabren mañana 1 de abril, ha aprovechado espacios que, hasta la fecha, no estaban dedicados al discurso expositivo. Sin duda, entre los aciertos de esta reforma se encuentra el aprovechamiento de los dos patios que, hasta ahora, permanecían cerrados al público. En uno de ellos, el llamado "patio romano" se exhiben las mejoras piezas de la colección epigráfica del Museo Arqueológico Nacional y una selección de la colección de escultura romana. Aprovechando los trabajos de escaneado de las inscripciones, hace unas semanas, realizamos dos fotografías esféricas de la sala 20, que compartimos aquí.

Las fotografías están alojadas en Photosynth y, para visualizarlas en algunos navegadores deben instalar previamente un plugin. Te recomendamos la opción de visualización a pantalla completa, que permite disfrutar de la sensación de visitar la sala como si estuviéramos allí mismo, desde el techo al suelo y desde todos los ángulos.

The Digital Corpus of Cuneiform Mathematical Texts

The Digital Corpus of Cuneiform Mathematical Texts
CBS 10191 obverse
Cuneiform writing was invented some 5000 years ago in southern Iraq for the purpose of keeping accounts - and for the next few hundred years book-keeping remained its sole use. The last datable cuneiform tablet, also from southern Iraq, is an astronomical diary for the year 75 CE. For the three millennia spanning the rise and fall of cuneiform writing, and arguably for some time after, numeracy was an inseparable and essential part of literate culture throughout the Middle East.

While the vast majority of cuneiform tablets contain numerical data, written by professional scribes, a smaller number are the outcome of teaching, learning, or communicating mathematical techniques or ideas as part of scribal education. This website presents transliterations and translations of around a thousand published cuneiform mathematical tablets; a similar number await decipherment and analysis in museums around the world.

 The text and editions on this site are by Eleanor Robson whose work on this project was supported by an Early Career Fellowship from the University of Cambridge's Centre for Research in Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities in January-March 2007.

 The Digital Corpus of Cuneiform Mathematical Texts is a component of

Open Access Journal: Dionysus Ex Machina: Rivista annuale online di studi sul teatro antico

Dionysus Ex Machina: Rivista annuale online di studi sul teatro antico
Dionysus Ex Machina, rivista on line di studi sul teatro antico pubblicata con cadenza annuale, si articola in sei sezioni (Testi, Dopo l'antichità, Scene, Monumenti, Cinema, Laboratori. Scuola e Università) e in uno spazio ulteriore (Notizie) costantemente aggiornato, che ospita annunci, recensioni e agili schede di spettacoli teatrali, libri, convegni, festival attinenti alla drammaturgia e, più in generale, alla cultura classica. Sono disponibili liberamente tutti gli articoli, i contenuti multimediali, lo spazio Notizie e i link, previa registrazione gratuita. 

I volumi della Biblioteca di DEM possono essere acquistati interamente o per singoli articoli tramite Casalini Libri.

Open Access Journal: Monuments et mémoires de la Fondation Eugène Piot

Monuments et mémoires de la Fondation Eugène Piot
ISSN: 1148-6023
Eugène Piot (1812-1890), esthète et archéologue, qui voulait contribuer au développement de la recherche et du goût dans le vaste domaine de l’art depuis le temps des anciennes cultures de l’Orient jusqu’à la Renaissance, légua sa fortune à l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. Celle-ci décida alors de publier, grâce aux revenus de la Fondation Piot, des Monuments et Mémoires consacrés aux études d’art et d’archéologie, collection très richement illustrée dont le premier volume parut en 1894.











Open Accesss Journal: Aitia. Regards sur la culture hellénistique au XXIème siècle

 [First posted in AWOL 30 May 2012, updated 26 July 2014]

Aitia. Regards sur la culture hellénistique au XXIème siècle
ISSN electronic edition: 1775-4275
Aitia. Regards sur la culture hellénistique au XXIe siècle est une revue internationale électronique. Elle s’intéresse à l’ensemble de la culture hellénistique. Les études hellénisitiques ont fait durant les deux dernières décennies des progrès considérables et ont connu d’importants bouleversements. Toute cette importante partie de la littérature, de l’art et de la philosophie est longtemps restée dans l’indifférence des chercheurs et universitaires en raison de son caractère déjà tardif et de sa complexité. La notion même de « période hellénistique » – qui débute au moment de la mort d’Alexandre, en 323 avant J.-C. et s’achève autour de 30 av. J.-C. – est assez récente. C’est pourtant un moment essentiel de l’histoire culturelle à l’articulation entre le monde classique grec et le monde romain, un moment essentiel où, notamment, se mettent en place la critique littéraire et l’approche scientifique des textes dans le cadre de la Bibliothèque du Musée à Alexandrie.

Meketre: an online repository for middle kingdom scenes

Meketre: an online repository for middle kingdom scenes
MEKETRE is an interdisciplinary research project, conducted at the Institute of Egyptology in cooperation with the research group Multimedia Information Systems at the University of Vienna. The project is funded by the Austrian Science Fund ( FWF) and bears the project number P21571.
MEKETRE focuses on two main goals:

  • It seeks to systematically collect, research, and study the reliefs and paintings of Middle Kingdom tombs of Ancient Egypt. The project targets two- dimensional art of the Middle Kingdom (11th to 13th Dynasty, ca. 2040 - 1640 B.C.) and one of its main aims is to map and elaborate the development of the scenes and their content in comparison to the Old Kingdom.
  • The project's technical part covers the research-based development of the MEKETREpository, a specialised software solution that supports the assessment, organisation and analysis of the collected material and bibliographic metadata. It supports the collaborative development of ontologies and collaborative annotation on the available media material. 
    The copyright of the database will remain with the Institute of Egyptology, University Vienna, which means that this institution is entitled to host and develop it. In a further step it is planned to make the repository accessible to scholars, teachers and students worldwide, thus giving an easy access to updated information about scenes and scene details in Middle Kingdom tombs.
    click here for exploring the scenes we've collected so far!
    view/query the terms used in the repository
    Literature Database
    view/query the bibliography used in the repository

Digital Gordion: The Gordion Archaeological Project

Digital Gordion: The Gordion Archaeological Project
This website is produced by the Gordion Archaeological Project at the Penn Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. Our goal is to make key Gordion information and interpretations more immediately accessible to the world at large, and to encourage the broadest interest in this historically important place and the many cultural associations that have marked it through the centuries.
Thank you for taking the time to visit us. We hope you’ll enjoy learning about Gordion. If you have any comments or suggestions to improve our website, please don’t hesitate to get in touch.
See linked data for Gordion/Vindia? via awld.js

Tombes de Deir el Medina: Couverture photographique

Tombes de Deir el Medina: Couverture photographique
La nécropole de Deir el-Medina, concession de l’Ifao, a déjà fait l’objet de plusieurs publications. Toutefois, ces monographies ne reprennent pas toutes les photographies dont dispose l’Ifao ; en outre, dans le passé, les illustrations se limitaient souvent à des clichés en noir et blanc, voire à des planches au trait. 

La base de données ci-jointe réunit l’ensemble des clichés faits par l’Ifao (plaques de verre, diapositives couleurs, négatifs n/b, photos numériques), tombe par tombe, et, pour chaque tombe, paroi par paroi, en suivant la numérotation du « Porter & Moss »1 , universellement utilisée. Le classement permet ainsi une comparaison immédiate des clichés entre eux. Pour chaque photographie, le nom du photographe et la date de prise de vue sont indiqués. 

Nous avons pris le parti de mettre en ligne un certain nombre de clichés techniquement « imparfaits » (voire des diapositives qui ont « viré » au rose ou au violet), pour les raisons suivantes : certains clichés très anciens donnent un état du monument qui n’existe plus ; d’autres clichés ont un cadrage ou un éclairage différent de celui des photographies de bonne qualité et permettent ainsi de voir des détails différents. 

Concernant les datations : certaines datations ont fait l’objet d’une étude approfondie de la part des auteurs, d’autres sont simplement reprises à Porter & Moss en attendant mieux.

Pour l’instant, seules les images des tombes publiées s’affichent sur le site. Au fur et à mesure que sortiront de nouvelles publications de tombes, la base de données sera mise à jour.

Les photos sont en basse définition. Les chercheurs qui le souhaitent peuvent obtenir, à des fins scientifiques ou pédagogiques, ces mêmes photos en haute définition et sans légende incrustée via le lien Demande de reproduction, avec obligation de mentionner le copyright fourni par l’Ifao. La qualité de la photo affichée ne présage pas de la qualité finale de la photo demandée, en particulier pour les vues en noir et blanc. 

Le Service des Archives remercie Vincent Razanajao, Editor of the Topographical Bibliography and Keeper of the Archive, Griffith Institute (Oxford), pour nous avoir autorisés à reproduire les croquis de position établis par Miss Porter et Miss Moss (« the sketch plans in the Bibliography are not drawn to scale, and while giving a general idea of shape and proportions, are simply intended as a guide to the position of scenes and texts », Vol. I, first edition, 1927, p. XII). Grâce à l'aimable collaboration de V. Razanajao, des liens sont établis, pour chaque tombe (et bientôt pour chaque paroi), entre la base de données de l'Ifao et la nouvelle version, électronique, du Porter & Moss, le TopBib (http://topbib.griffith.ox.ac.uk).
Pour citer la base, on peut soit

POTENZA Valley Project

POTENZA Valley Project
In 2000 a team of Ghent University (Belgium), under the direction of Prof. Frank Vermeulen, started a very intensive survey of an Adriatic valley. Denominated 'Potenza Valley Survey' (PVS), this research project aims at measuring the evolution of social complexity during Antiquity in a specific part of Central Italy. The fieldwork operations in the valley of the river Potenza included systematic archaeological field walking, active aerial photography, artefact studies, re-study of excavated evidence, detailed geomorphologic field mapping, geophysical surveys and topographic analysis. During the years these interdisciplinary and mostly non-invasive approaches allowed to obtain a new holistic synthesis of the occupation history in this territory, with a special emphasis on the protohistoric, Roman and early medieval periods.  

This website wants to take the PVS online, by offering up-to-date information on the aims of the project, the methodologies applied and the results gained. As frequently as possible, this site will be updated with more texts, maps and pictures. So please check regularly.

Open Access Journal: Discentes: The Undergraduate Magazine for the Department of Classical Studies at the University of Pennsylvania

Discentes: The Undergraduate Magazine for the Department of Classical Studies at the University of Pennsylvania

Suda News: "A translation of the last of the Suda’s 31000+ entries was submitted to the database on July 21, 2014 and vetted the next day."

Suda On Line: Byzantine Lexicography
... At present (July 2014), the family of active and emerita/us SOL contributors comprises over 200 individuals from five continents and more than 20 countries, but geography is not the only aspect that makes this group diverse and eclectic. In addition to research-active university faculty, our roster has included retired professors, scholars in countries where the internet provides an invaluable supplement to meager local resources, and talented classicists who for one reason or another have ended up in careers other than higher education. One of the great benefits of SOL is the opportunity the project gives to such scholars to make a valuable contribution to the field. SOL has also been used to good effect in the classroom. Instructors at several colleges and universities have assigned entries to graduate and advanced undergraduate students for supervised translating and annotating, and hundreds of their contributions are now a permanent part of the database and can be listed as published scholarly works on the students’ CV's. One of our most prolific contributors, Jennifer Benedict (over 4500 translations), did most of her work on the SOL as an undergraduate at William & Mary. Several scholars, including Peter Green, Malcolm Heath and John Melville-Jones, donated translations of entries that they had done previously for other purposes. 

A translation of the last of the Suda’s 31000+ entries was submitted to the database on July 21, 2014 and vetted the next day. This milestone is very gratifying, but the work of the project is far from over. As mentioned above, one of the founding principles of the project is that the process of improving and annotating our translations will go on indefinitely. Much important work remains to be done. We are also constantly thinking of ways to improve SOL's infrastructure and to add new tools and features. If you are interested in helping us with the continuing betterment of SOL, please read about how you can register as an editor and/or contact the managing editors