Channel: AWOL - The Ancient World Online

Open Access Journal: Cuneiform Digital Library Preprints (CDLP)

[First posted in AWOL 25 November 2017, updated 27 February 2021]

Cuneiform Digital Library Preprints (CDLP)
CDLI is pleased to present here the results of research in progress submitted, for inclusion in a preprint series hosted by the project, by experts in fields associated with Assyriology and Ancient Near Eastern Archaeology. We anticipate that these papers in their final form will eventually be available in journals (in some cases our own) or in edited volumes; or will, by authors' preference, remain unpublished in the formal sense, so that this may be a final venue for work that might otherwise remain unnoticed in the field. Authors who are interested in submitting contributions to the CDLP should be generally aware of the editorial policies of the journals CDLJ& CDLB; while submissions in English are preferred, CDLP does, however, accept preprints in the other major languages of academic communication. Significant and nearly complete, or dormant research papers are particularly welcome, regardless of their length and scope. Authors should make their submissions in both originating text-processor/layout file, and in the PDF format in which it will be made available here. International A4 or US letter format are both allowed, portrait or landscape. In most cases, if the submission is acceptable for distribution, we will merely add a lead page of the form visible in the files listed below. We invite interested authors to make use of this series to communicate their research to a broader community in advance or in stead of undertaking the rigors of a peer-reviewed standard publication, and we hope the feedback that results from a paper’s dissemination through CDLP contributes to its ultimate impact.
A paper can be updated with a simple new submission by the author(s); to retain a sense of the history of research, we will list new versions one after the other with new “Date posted;” we limit such updates to one (1) per calendar year following the initial posting. We will not retire CDLP entries that move on to formal publications; rather, we request that authors send us notice and citation of the publication, that will be entered to our list for easy reference.
The CDLP is under the editorial supervision of Bertrand Lafont (CNRS, Nanterre), to whom queries and submissions should be directed.

Date posted
Download file
20.0 Karlsson, Mattias The Depictions of the “Other” on the Balawat Gates 2021/01/08 PDF
19.0 Karlsson, Mattias Assyrian Royal Titulary in Babylonia 2020/08/14 PDF
18.0 Leroy, Pauline Elamite bricks from the Museum of Hotel Sandelin (France, Saint-Omer) 2020/04/20 PDF
17.0 Peterson, Jeremiah The Literary Sumerian of Old Babylonian Ur: UET 6/1-3 in Transliteration and Translation with Select Commentary Part 3/3 2019/04/16 PDF
16.0 Peterson, Jeremiah The Literary Sumerian of Old Babylonian Ur: UET 6/1-3 in Transliteration and Translation with Select Commentary Part 2/3 2019/04/16 PDF
15.0 Peterson, Jeremiah The Literary Sumerian of Old Babylonian Ur: UET 6/1-3 in Transliteration and Translation with Select Commentary Part 1/3 2019/04/16 PDF
14.0 Dahl, Jacob L.;
Hameeuw, Hendrik;
Wagensonner, Klaus
Looking both forward and back: imaging cuneiform 2019/03/19 PDF
13.1 Huber, Peter J. Early Linguists 2019/11/15 PDF
13.0 Huber, Peter J. Early Linguists 2018/11/07 PDF
12.0 Gentili, Paolo Sargonic Names in the Diyala Region and Beyond 2018/02/06 PDF
11.0 Brunke, Hagan Zur Frage von Ausdruck und Normgültigkeit mathematischer Regeln in Mesopotamien 2017/12/18 PDF
10.0 Brunke, Hagan A New Geometric School Text from Cornell 2017/12/18 PDF
9.0 Cripps, Eric L. The Structure of Prices in the neo-Sumerian Economy (III); Cults and Prices at the Collapse of the Ur III State (now published as: JCS 71, 2019, 53-76) 2017/09/25 PDF
8.0 Cripps, Eric L. The Structure of Prices in the neo-Sumerian Economy (II); The Wool:Silver Price Ratio (now published as: RA 113, 2019, 13-38) 2017/09/25 PDF
7.0 Cripps, Eric L. The Structure of Prices in the neo-Sumerian Economy (I); Barley:Silver Price Ratios 2017/09/25 PDF
6.1 Kaula, Jörg „Nachdem das Königtum vom Himmel herabgekommen war…“. Untersuchungen zur Sumerischen Königsliste 2021/02/25 PDF
6.0 Kaula, Jörg „Nachdem das Königtum vom Himmel herabgekommen war…“. Untersuchungen zur Sumerischen Königsliste 2016/11/21 PDF
5.0 Proust, Christine Floating calculation in Mesopotamia 2016/05/02 PDF
4.0 Panayotov, Strahil V. „Die Lampe am Krankenbett“. Untersuchungen zu altorientalischen Gebeten an den Lichtgott Nuska 2016/01/23 PDF
3.0 Foxvog, Daniel A. Elementary Sumerian Glossary 2016/01/04 PDF
2.0 Foxvog, Daniel A. Introduction to Sumerian Grammar 2016/01/04 PDF
1.3 Huber, Peter J. On the Old Babylonian Understanding of Sumerian Grammar (now published as: LINCOM Studies in Asian Linguistics 87 [Munich 2018: LINCOM GmbH]) 2018/01/02 PDF
1.2 Huber, Peter J. On the Old Babylonian Understanding of Sumerian Grammar 2017/01/01 PDF
1.1 Huber, Peter J. On the Old Babylonian Understanding of Sumerian Grammar 2016/04/01 PDF
1.0 Huber, Peter J. On the Old Babylonian Understanding of Sumerian Grammar 2015/09/03 PDF


Open Access Monograph Series: Athenian Agora

[First posted in AWOL 11 June 2014, updated 27 February 2021]

Athenian Agora
Many volumes within the Corinth ("Red Book"), Athenian Agora ("Blue Book"), and Hesperia Supplement series are out of print, and there are no plans to reprint the volumes at least for the next few years. In 2014, the Publications Committee of the ASCSA's Managing Committee voted unanimously to allow PDFs of these out-of-print volumes to be posted to the ASCSA's website as Open Access. You may freely read, download, and share these files under the BY-NC-ND Creative Commons license (non-commercial use; you must cite the ASCSA as the source; you may not make derivatives). The scans were created by JSTOR, and through the ASCSA's Content Sharing Agreement with JSTOR, we can make these PDFs available to individuals at no charge.

I: Portrait Sculpture, by Evelyn B. Harrison (1953)

II: Coins: From the Roman through the Venetian Period, by Margaret Thompson (1954)

III: Literary and Epigraphical Testimonia, by R. E. Wycherley (1957)

IV: Greek Lamps and Their Survivals, by Richard Hubbard Howland (1958)

V: Pottery of the Roman Period: Chronology, by Henry S. Robinson (1959)

VI: Terracottas and Plastic Lamps of the Roman Period, by Clairève Grandjouan (1961)

VII: Lamps of the Roman Period: First to Seventh Century after Christ, by Judith Perlzweig (1961)

VIII: Late Geometric and Protoattic Pottery: Mid-8th to Late 7th Century B.C., by Eva T. H. Brann (1962)

IX: The Islamic Coins, by George C. Miles (1962)

X: Weights, Measures, and Tokens, by Mabel Lang and Margaret Crosby (1964)

XI: Archaic and Archaistic Sculpture, by Evelyn B. Harrison (1965)

XIII: The Neolithic and Bronze Ages, by Sara Anderson (1971)

XIV: The Agora of Athens: The History, Shape, and Uses of an Ancient City Center, by Homer A. Thompson and R. E. Wycherley (1972)

XV: Inscriptions: The Athenian Councillors, by Benjamin D. Meritt and John S. Traill (1974)

XVI: Inscriptions: The Decrees, by A. Geoffrey Woodhead (1997)

XVII: Inscriptions: The Funerary Monuments, by Donald W. Bradeen (1974)

XIX: Inscriptions: Horoi, Poletai Records, and Leases of Public Lands, by Gerald V. Lalonde, Merle K. Langdon, and Michael B. Walbank (1991)

XX: The Church of the Holy Apostles, by Alison Frantz (1971)

XXI: Graffiti and Dipinti, by Mabel Lang (1976)

XXIV: Late Antiquity: A.D. 267–700, by Alison Frantz (1988)

XXVI: The Greek Coins, by John H. Kroll, with Alan S. Walker (1993)

XXVIII: The Lawcourts at Athens: Sites, Buildings, Equipment, Procedure, and Testimonia, by Alan L. Boegehold et al. (1995)

Open Access Monograph Series: Hesperia Supplements


 [First posted in AWOL 11 June 2014, updated 27 February 2021]

Hesperia Supplements

Many volumes within the Corinth ("Red Book"), Athenian Agora ("Blue Book"), and Hesperia Supplement series are out of print, and there are no plans to reprint the volumes at least for the next few years. In 2014, the Publications Committee of the ASCSA's Managing Committee voted unanimously to allow PDFs of these out-of-print volumes to be posted to the ASCSA's website as Open Access. You may freely read, download, and share these files under the BY-NC-ND Creative Commons license (non-commercial use; you must cite the ASCSA as the source; you may not make derivatives). The scans were created by JSTOR, and through the ASCSA's Content Sharing Agreement with JSTOR, we can make these PDFs available to individuals at no charge.

1: Prytaneis: A Study of the Inscriptions Honoring the Athenian Councillors, by Sterling Dow (1937)

2: Late Geometric Graces and a Seventh-Century Well in the Agora, by Rodney S. Young (1939)

3: The Setting of the Periclean Parthenon, by Gorham P. Stevens (1940)

4: The Tholos of Athens and its Predecessors, by Homer A. Thompson (1940)

5: Observations on the Hephaisteion, by William B. Dinsmoor (1941)

6: The Sacred Gerusia, by James H. Oliver (1941)

7: Small Objects from the Pnyx I, by Gladys R. Davidson and Dorothy B. Thompson (1943)

8: Commemorative Studies in Honor of Theodore Leslie Shear (1949)

9: Horoi: Studies in Mortgage, Real Security, and Land Tenure in Ancient Athens, by John V. A. Fine (1951)

10: Small Objects from the Pnyx II, by Lucy Talcott, Barbara Philippaki, G. Roger Edwards, and Virginia R. Grace (1956)

11: Fortified Military Camps in Attica, by James R. McCredie (1966)

12: The Athenian Constitution after Sulla, by Daniel J. Geagan (1967)

15: The Lettering of an Athenian Mason, by Stephen V. Tracy (1975)

18: Lasithi: A History of Settlement on a Highland Plain in Crete, by Lance V. Watrous (1982)

Open Access Monograph Series: Corinth


[First posted in AWOL 11 June 2014, updated 27  February 2021]



Many volumes within the Corinth ("Red Book"), Athenian Agora ("Blue Book"), and Hesperia Supplement series are out of print, and there are no plans to reprint the volumes at least for the next few years. In 2014, the Publications Committee of the ASCSA's Managing Committee voted unanimously to allow PDFs of these out-of-print volumes to be posted to the ASCSA's website as Open Access. You may freely read, download, and share these files under the BY-NC-ND Creative Commons license (non-commercial use; you must cite the ASCSA as the source; you may not make derivatives). The scans were created by JSTOR, and through the ASCSA's Content Sharing Agreement with JSTOR, we can make these PDFs available to individuals at no charge.

I.6: The Springs: Peirene, Sacred Spring, Glauke, by Bert Hodge Hill (1964) (text and plates)

III.1: Acrocorinth: Excavations in 1926, by Carl W. Blegen, Richard Stillwell, Oscar Broneer, and Alfred Raymond Bellinger (1930)

III.2: The Defenses of Acrocorinth and the Lower Town, by Rhys Carpenter and Antoine Bon (1936)

IV.1: Decorated Architectural Terracottas, by Ida Thallon-Hill and Lida Shaw King (1929)

V. The Roman Villa, by T. L. Shear (1930)

VI: Coins, 1896-1929, by Katherine M. Edwards (1933)

VII.1: The Geometric and Orientalizing Pottery, by Saul S. Weinberg (1943)

VII.2: Archaic Corinthian Pottery and the Anaploga Well, by D. A. Amyx and Patricia Lawrence (1975)

VII.3: Corinthian Hellenistic Pottery, by G. Roger Edwards (1975)

VIII.1: Greek Inscriptions, 1896-1927, by Benjamin Dean Meritt (1931)

VIII.2: Latin Inscriptions, 1896-1926, by Allen Brown West (1931)

VIII.3: The Inscriptions, 1926-1950, by John Harvey Kent (1966)

X: The Odeum, by Oscar Broneer (1932)

XI: The Byzantine Pottery, by Charles H. Morgan II (1942)

XII: The Minor Objects, by Gladys R. Davidson (1952)

XIII: The North Cemetery, by Carl W. Blegen, Hazel Palmer, and Rodney S. Young (1964)

XIV: The Asklepion and Lerna, by Carl Roebuck (1951)

XV.1: The Potters' Quarter, by Agnes N. Stillwell (1948)

XV.2: The Potters' Quarter: The Terracottas, by Agnes N. Stillwell and J. L. Benson (1984)

XVI: Mediaeval Architecture in the Central Area of Corinth, by Robert L. Scranton (1957)

Deserted Villages: Perspectives from the Eastern Mediterranean

Edited by Rebecca M. Seifried and Deborah E. Brown Stewart.
With contributions from Ioanna Antoniadou, Todd Brenningmeyer, William R. Caraher, Marica Cassis, Timothy E. Gregory, Miltiadis Katsaros, Kostis Kourelis, Anthony Lauricella, Dimitri Nakassis, David K. Pettegrew, Richard Rothaus, Guy D. R. Sanders, Isabel Sanders, Lita Tzortzopoulou-Gregory, Olga Vassi, Bret Weber, and Miyon Yoo.

Deserted Villages: Perspectives from the Eastern Mediterranean is a collection of case studies examining the abandonment of rural settlements over the past millennium and a half, focusing on modern-day Greece with contributions from Turkey and the United States. Unlike other parts of the world, where deserted villages have benefited from decades of meticulous archaeological research, in the eastern Mediterranean better-known ancient sites have often overshadowed the nearby remains of more recently abandoned settlements. Yet as the papers in this volume show, the tide is finally turning toward a more engaged, multidisciplinary, and anthropologically informed archaeology of medieval and post-medieval rural landscapes.

The inspiration for this volume was a two-part colloquium organized for the 2016 Annual Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America in San Francisco. The sessions were sponsored by the Medieval and Post-Medieval Archaeology Interest Group, a rag-tag team of archaeologists who set out in 2005 with the dual goals of promoting the study of later material and cultural heritage and opening publication venues to the fruits of this research. The introduction to the volume reviews the state of the field and contextualizes the archaeological understanding of abandonment and post-abandonment as ongoing processes. The nine, peer reviewed chapters, which have been substantially revised and expanded since the colloquium, offer unparalleled glimpses into how this process has played out in different places. In the first half, the studies focus on long-abandoned sites that have now entered the archaeological record. In the second half, the studies incorporate archival analysis and ethnographic interviews—alongside the archaeologists’ hyper-attention to material culture—to examine the processes of abandonment and post-abandonment in real time.


Open Access (Hybrid) Journal: Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory

Electronic ISSN: 1573-7764
Print ISSN: 1072-5369 
Hybrid (Transformative Journal)

Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, the leading journal in its field, presents original articles that address method- or theory-focused issues of current archaeological interest and represent significant explorations on the cutting edge of the discipline. The journal also welcomes topical syntheses that critically assess and integrate research on a specific subject in archaeological method or theory, as well as examinations of the history of archaeology.

Written by experts, the articles benefit an international audience of archaeologists, students of archaeology, and practitioners of closely related disciplines. Specific topics covered in recent issues include: the use of niche construction theory in archaeology, new developments in the use of soil chemistry in archaeological interpretation, and a model for the prehistoric development of clothing.

The Journal's distinguished Editorial Board includes archaeologists with worldwide archaeological knowledge (the Americas, Asia and the Pacific, Europe, and Africa), and expertise in a wide range of methodological and theoretical issues.

This journal has 60 open access articles

See the full List of Open Access Journals in Ancient Studies

Savoirs locaux et agriculture durable au Yémen: Séminaire ‘Place des pratiques et techniques anciennes dans l’agriculture yéménite d’aujourd’hui : problèmes et perspectives’, Sanaa, juin 2000 - Indigenous knowledge and sustainable agriculture in Yemen: Seminar ‘The place of ancient agricultural practices and techniques in Yemen today: Problems and perspectives’, Sanaa, June 2000

Traduction de Saeed A. Ba-Angood et Daniel Varisco
Savoirs locaux et agriculture durable au Yémen

Réalisé en partenariat avec le Centre Yéménite de Ressources Génétiques, ce numéro des ‘Cahiers du CEFAS’, qui fait suite à deux précédents ‘Cahiers du CFEY’, réunit une sélection de 19 articles issus du séminaire Place des pratiques et des techniques anciennes dans l’agriculture yéménite d’aujourd’hui : problèmes et perspectives, qui s’était tenu en juin 2000 à la Faculté d’Agriculture de Sanaa et dans les locaux du CEFAS.

Plus de trente anthropologues, archéologues, géographes, historiens, agronomes et spécialistes du développement, étrangers et yéménites, ont pris la parole au cours de ces journées de rencontres et d’échanges.Loin d’un regard nostalgique sur l’image d’une agriculture yéménite immuable qui aurait échappé à toute modernisation ‘néfaste’ de ses pratiques et de ses techniques, et bien loin d’un débat remettant en question des avancées technologiques ‘excessives’ et leurs éventuels effets sur l’environnement et la qualité de l’alimentation, il fut davantage question ici de réfléchir aux interventions en matière de développement dans un pays principalement d’économie rurale et pour lequel toute politique de développement doit s’appuyer en priorité sur le travail de sa population paysanne.

This third publication of ‘Cahiers du CEFAS’ –previously named ‘Cahiers du CFEY’- results from a partnership with the Yemeni Genetic Resources Center (YGRC) and consists of 19 articles selected from the seminar The place of ancient agricultural practices and techniques in Yemen today : problems and perspectives, held in June 2000, at the Faculty of Agriculture of Sanaa University and in the CEFAS.

More than 30 anthropologists, archaeologists, geographers, historians, agronomists and development specialists, from Yemen and abroad, participated in the meetings. Far from being a nostalgic point of view on a potentially ‘unchanging’ Yemeni agriculture, protected from any ‘harmful’ modernisation of its practices and techniques, and at the same time, far from discrediting ‘excessive’ technological improvements and their effects on environment or food quality, this seminar was clearly dedicated to sharing ideas related to development operations in this mainly rural country, where any development policy has to, in all cases, rely upon farmers’ labour.

Système de translittération simplifié utilisé dans ce recueil

Simplified transliteration system used in this book

Amin Al-Hakimi et Frédéric Pelat

Savoirs locaux et agriculture durable au Yémen

Section II - Traditional Yemeni knowledge


Section III - Indigenous knowledge & agricultural development



Partially Open Access Journal: Jaarbericht van het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch Genootschap Ex Oriente Lux = Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society Ex Oriente Lux = Annuaire de la Société Orientale Ex Oriente Lux (JEOL)

ISSN: 0075-2118 

JEOL is a peer-reviewed journal on the history, culture, languages, and archaeology of the Ancient Near East. It is published by the Dutch Ancient Near Eastern Society “Ex Oriente Lux” in collaboration with the Netherlands Institute for the Near East (NINO).

Editorial Team: J.G. Dercksen (editor-in-chief), K. van Bekkum (Levant), B.J.J. Haring (Egyptology), K.R. Veenhof (Assyriology), and W.J.I. Waal (Anatolia).

JEOL 37 (2001-2)
JEOL 38 (2003-4)
JEOL 39 (2005)
JEOL 40 (2006-7)
JEOL 41 (2008-9)
JEOL 42 (2010)
JEOL 43 (2011)
JEOL 44 (2012-13)
JEOL 45 (2014-15)

See AWOL's full List of Open Access Journals in Ancient Studies




Kyprianos Update


We’ve just posted our first 2021 update to the Kyprianos Database of Ancient Ritual Texts and Objects for 2020. As well as correcting some small mistakes in manuscript, text, and archive entries, the update includes:


Transformations of City and Countryside in the Byzantine Period

Beate Böhlendorf-Arslan, Robert Schick (Hrsg.) 
 Transformations of City and Countryside in the Byzantine Period

 Byzanz zwischen Orient und Okzident

Der Begriff der "Transformation" oder einfach "Umgestaltung" enthält sowohl die Elemente des Bleibenden, des Konservativen, den Kern des Fortbestehenden, als auch die Elemente des Veränderten, des Innovativen.

Im Rahmen dieser Publikation von Beiträgen einer Tagung aus dem Jahr 2016 zum Thema "Transformationen von Stadt und Land in byzantinischer Zeit" lenken wir die Aufmerksamkeit auf diese Dichotomie und untersuchen die soziale Dynamik hinter den Veränderungen des städtischen und ländlichen Lebens in byzantinischer Zeit, die sich durch Archäologie, Geschichte und Kunstgeschichte nachweisen lassen.

Das Byzantinische Reich ist ein idealer Gegenstand, um zu untersuchen, wie soziale Transformation abläuft, was sie auslöst, welche Faktoren ihr zugrunde liegen und welche Prozesse dabei ablaufen. Wer waren die Agenten der Transformation und wie veränderten sie und ihr Umfeld sich? Wie flexibel waren der Staat oder seine Bürger im Umgang mit externem und internem Innovationsdruck? Auf welche Weise und in welchem Maße konnten die Byzantiner im Zuge dieser Anpassungsprozesse ihre Identität und den inneren Zusammenhalt ihres Reiches bewahren?

Dieses Werk ist unter der
Creative Commons-Lizenz 4.0
(CC BY-SA 4.0)
Creative Commons Lizenz BY-SA 4.0

ISBN 978-3-96929-024-8 (PDF)

Veröffentlicht am 01.03.2021.



Open Access Journal: Studies in Digital Heritage


 [First posted in AWOL 14 December 2017, updates 2 March 2021]

Studies in Digital Heritage

Bust of Agrippina Minor 
Studies in Digital Heritage publishes peer-reviewed articles, monographs, and special issues treating the entire gamut of topics in the field of Digital Heritage.

his peer-reviewed, online journal publishes innovative work applying new digital technologies to the various fields of cultural heritage such as Anthropology, Archaeology, Art History, Architectural History, Classics, Conservation Science, Egyptology, and History. The journal welcomes submissions treating any and all technologies applied to the study of these fields.

While the journal covers the gamut of topics relating to the use of technology in the study of cultural heritage, its special emphasis is on 3D technologies, including 3D data capture, processing of 3D models, theory and practice of 3D restoration of cultural heritage objects, use of 3D models in research and instruction, metadata and paradata standards and best practices for 3D models, and the use of 3D models on VR and AR devices as well as on web pages.

Hence, when appropriate, authors are encouraged to embed interactive 3D models into their articles in place of traditional 2D illustrations. The journal supports WebGL solutions currently in use by professionals in the field, including 3DHop, Sketchfab, and Unity.  

From time to time the journal will publish special issues on a particular topic.

Research leading to the creation of this journal was generously supported by the National Science Foundation (grant # IIS-1014956; and see the related article by D. Koller, B. Frischer, and G. Humphreys, "Research Challenges for Digital Archives of 3D Cultural Heritage Models,"JOCCH 5, 2009, pp. 1-20).

Virtually Real or Really Virtual: Towards a Heritage Metaverse

Jeremy Huggett


Digital Documentation of the Saite Tombs in Saqqara

Matthias Lang Universität Tübingen, Ramadan Hussein, Benjamin Glissmann, Philippe Kluge


Serious Gaming for Virtual Archaeoastronomy

Georg Zotti, Bernard Frischer, John Fillwalk


Open Access Journal: Athens Journal of Mediterranean Studies

e-ISSN: 2407-9480  

The Athens Journal of Mediterranean Studies (AJMS) is an Open Access quarterly double blind peer reviewed journal and considers papers from all areas of Arts and Humanities, Social Sciences, Business and Law, Urban Planning, Architecture and Environmental Sciences. The Journal encourages the submission of policy papers and small case or country studies. Many of the papers published in this journal have been presented at the various conferences sponsored by the Center for European & Mediterranean Affairs (CEMA) of the Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER). All papers are subject to ATINER’s Publication Ethical Policy and Statement. A journal publication might take from a minimum of six months up to one year to appear.


  • Volume 7, Issue 4, October 2021 (to be uploaded by 30 September 2021)
  • Volume 7, Issue 3, July 2021 (to be uploaded by 30 June 2021)
  • Volume 7, Issue 2, April 2021 (to be uploaded by 31 March 2021)
  • Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2021 


2015-2019 Volumes

See AWOL's full List of Open Access Journals in Ancient Studies


Iliados: Structural Search: Perform grammatical and syntactical searches on the Perseus Greek Treebank

Iliados: Structural Search: Perform grammatical and syntactical searches on the Perseus Greek Treebank

This is a brief overview of the query language for searching the Perseus Treebank data, which has syntactically annotated ancient texts, such as Homer's Iliad. Each sentence in the texts are turned into trees, like sentence diagrams, in a format called a dependency tree. The query language for searching these trees is just the CSS3 query language, with some custom additions.

  1. To begin, you can search for any lemma by simply typing the lemma directly: φθογγή
  2. To search for all words in the accusative case, simply proceed the case by a colon (:): :accusative
  3. A term proceeded by a colon is called a "pseudo-selector". Any part-of-speech, tense, gender, person, number, case, voice, mood, or degree can be searched with this pseudo-selector syntax, as in :accusative:optative:imperative:dual:verb
  4. To search for words that have multiple features, such as a singular, third-person, verb, concatenate the pseudo-selectors together: :third:singular:verb
  5. To search for the occurrence of a specific lemma with certain attributes, concatenate the lemma to the the pseudo-selectors: αἰτέω:first:singular:present
  6. Another psuedo-selector worth knowing is the :root selector. It searches for all "root" words in a sentence, i.e., the main clause, i.e., those words with parentId=0. It's worth noting that, in the dependency tree format, final punctuation (".", ";", and so forth) also have parentId=0. The :root selector, however, excludes punctuation.
  7. To search for a specific morpheme/form (i.e., an inclined or conjugated word), use a selector like [form=?], as in [form=φθογγὴν]
  8. Selectors like [a=?] are called "attribute-selectors". In addition to the form attribute-selector, the relation selector is very useful. Here is a search for all conditionals: εἰ[relation=AuxC]
  9. With everything we've learned so far, it's easy to find substantival infinitives used as subjects, isn't it? :infinitive:verb[relation=SBJ]
  10. Or we can search for genitive absolutes, my least favorite feature of Greek! :genitive[relation=SBJ]
  11. So far we've seen how to search for individual words that have certain inflectional and syntactic features. But we can also search for the relationships between words, or in the jargon of dependency-trees, the dependency relationship between terms. In a dependency tree, a word that depends upon another, or modifies another, has a parent-child relationship. For example, when an adjective modifies a noun, the adjective is the child, the noun is the parent, and the relationship between them is ATR. Searching for parent-child relationships uses the greater-than (>) operator, as in :noun > :adjective
  12. As a more concrete example, to find all adjectives modifying μῆνις, do this: μῆνις > :adjective[relation=ATR]
  13. It's worth noting that not adjectives aren't the only things that can modify nouns. Certain genitives do this, as in "Διὸς μῆνις". Here is a search for anything modifying "μῆνις"μῆνις > [relation=ATR]
  14. At this point, we know enough to search for indicative verbs with accusative objects where the verb is that of a main clause: :verb:indicative:root > :accusative[relation=OBJ]
  15. But we should note that the query above is incomplete! In fact, some sentences begin with a coordinating conjunction ("but", "and", etc.). In the dependency-tree scheme, these are the parents of the main verb. So now we must express a pattern 3 levels deep: [relation=COORD]:root > :verb:indicative > :accusative[relation=OBJ]
  16. Fortunately, it's possible to combine two independent queries together, by using the comma (,) operator, as in selector1, selector2. So we can mingle the previous two queries like this: :verb:indicative:root > :accusative[relation=OBJ], [relation=COORD]:root > :verb:indicative > :accusative[relation=OBJ]
  17. At this point, we also should know how to search for future-less-vivid conditionals, which could be my favorite! :optative > εἰ[relation=AuxC] > :optative
  18. Another class of problems relates to the order of words in sentences. Since the trees themselves express only syntactic relationships, there are special operators to look for ordinal relationships between words. For example, to search for "subject-verb-object" word order, you can use the :before and :after pseudo-selectors: :verb:before([relation=SBJ]):after([relation=OBJ])In this example, the before and after pseudo-selectors are functions that take arguments. There arguments are selectors themselves (e.g., [relation=SBJ]) and those are evaluated relative to a parent selector. That sounds a bit complicated, but it means that :verb:before([relation=SBJ]) will only look for words with [relation=SBJ] that are also children of the verb in the dependency tree.
  19. Sometimes, however, it's simpler or more useful to search only for word order and ignore any syntactic relationship between the words. There are two ways to do this. The first uses the plus (+) operator, which looks for immediately adjacent words within a sentence, as in φίλος + γάρ + εἰμί
  20. The second is the tilda (~) operator, which looks only at word order in a sentence, ignoring whether the terms are right next to each other: φίλος ~ εἰμί

Online Exhibition: THE EMPIRE’S PHYSICIAN: Prosperity, Plague, and Healing in Ancient Rome

THE EMPIRE’S PHYSICIAN: Prosperity, Plague, and Healing in Ancient Rome

Open linked data and mapping scholarship in ancient studies


By Christian Casey, CLIR postdoctoral fellow at the ISAW Library, which is publishing today a new interactive, map-based visualization of its collection based on a newly redesigned database of bibliographic items tagged with Pleiades IDs, linked open data URIs for ancient places. In addition to the new visualization, the ISAW Library is also publishing the underlying data set, which now comprises over 4,000 curated bibliographic records in ancient studies, as well as the machine-learning algorithm that programmatically performs the initial assignment of Pleiades IDs to raw bibliographic records.

An image of the new map interface for ISAW New Titles, showing a book mapped to a temple site in Philae, Egypt
Fig. 1: A book in the ISAW Library collection about Philae mapped neatly inside the temple itself in ISAW’s new map visualization.

Once upon a time (June 2009), researchers at Google created a tool called Fusion Tables. Fusion Tables represented an almost utopian use scenario for cloud resources. They allowed anyone with a dataset to upload it into a database for free, link it to other tables uploaded by other people, and generate visualizations directly from their data. This service eliminated millions of person-hours of redundant work. Nearly everyone with a dataset sophisticated enough to be worth looking at needs to visualize that data at some point. Fusion Tables made it possible to generate visualizations at the click of a button.

But what does this have to do with the ISAW Library? 

Well, Fusion Tables made it easy for us to generate a map (built on the Google Maps framework) of all the items received every month using a single column of longitude and latitude data derived from Pleiades that we assigned to each book or journal. Because ISAW comprises researchers who study disparate parts of the ancient world, not everyone needs to know about every book in our library. What if you just wanted to see what we held about sites in Egypt or Central Asia or northern Germany? The ability to generate maps that provided an intuitive, visual grouping of newly-acquired books provided a simple solution to the problem of empowering our users to get the information they wanted in the richest and quickest way possible.

Our initial efforts with the New Titles mapping project were a success, and in 2019 Gabriel Mckee, ISAW’s Librarian for Collections and Services, published a paper on the project in the journal Information Technology and Libraries (ITAL). At a time when libraries are exploring practical methods of integrating semantic web technology into our systems,  we intended this project as an early example of how libraries can leverage the work done by open linked data projects like Pleiades. Geospatial search is only one example of how linked data can enhance the user experience and encourage resource discovery, and over a dozen institutions, including NYU, are now participating in a pilot project to explore methods of integrating linked data URIs into their cataloging workflows. 

In what follows, I will briefly describe the project in more detail and provide links to our new map and a GitHub repository with the underlying data set and some associated code.

New New Titles

Unfortunately, and as with all good things, Fusion Tables came to an end, going offline in December of 2020. This meant that, in order to continue to develop this project, we would need to “roll our own” database and map interface based on a loose collection of data that had previously been sufficient for Google’s large-scale, highly-robust data processing system. Our version does not need to be quite as sophisticated as Google’s, of course, but it does need to work reliably in order to be used by the communities interested in geographically linked bibliographic data, whether that is an ISAW researcher browsing our new titles or someone looking to reuse our entire data set (now over 4,000 items) for their own project (more on this below). Building such a system became a journey of discovery, in which this author learned many useful things about building web applications.

Making a map based on a database seems easy enough on paper, but it is not a simple operation in practice. Creating such a feature from scratch requires: a database; a backend app to query data from that database; and a front-end interface with a map package that displays the data. All parts must be connected to each other via the internet and be hosted and served by a third-party hosting service. Large-scale projects of this sort are generally created by teams of specialists, but at the ISAW Library, we have only ourselves, and the scale of the New Titles map project does not warrant hiring an expensive team of developers to build a full-scale web application. The silver lining is that this project not only fulfilled its original objective of providing a graphic, geographical access point and interface to search our books, but it also generated valuable datasets which will support further research into the geographic features of books in ancient studies more widely (or at least the areas in which ISAW collects). Also, and just as importantly, building it ourselves enables us to dive in and learn more than we could in any other way.

How does it work?

Good question! 

While cataloging new items for our collection, the ISAW Library’s staff adds geographic subject headings. Although this is a standard part of library resource cataloging, we take several extra steps: first, we provide greater specificity than many other libraries would, identifying specific sites rather than countries or provinces for minor archaeological sites. Second, we will apply general geographic headings on titles that other libraries may not treat geographically–for example, identifying Egypt as the geographic subject of general works on papyrology. Third, wherever possible, we include open linked data URIs for geographic places from Pleiades and the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN). Where necessary and appropriate, we will create new Pleiades headings for as-yet unlisted ancient places or sites to include in our cataloging.

At the end of the month, NYU’s Division of Libraries department of Data Analysis & Integration sends us a report of everything added to the collection that month, including URIs and other bibliographic data. From these reports, we generate HTML lists and a Zotero library (another open linked data project). These data also provide a convenient and straightforward training dataset for classifying each book’s subject area. That is, using the geographic data, a machine learning algorithm reliably groups books into general subjects that are useful to ISAW researchers. We then use the geographic URIs in the bibliographic report to assign coordinates for the subject of every title for which geographic representation makes sense. (Currently, this is done through retrieving coordinates from a separate, curated database of places from Pleaides, the TGN, and Wikidata– though we hope that a future version of the map may employ a true linked-data retrieval of coordinates from those data sources.) 


A visualization of automatically-assigned subject labels generated as a result of learning a mapping from geographic location to subject area using the New Titles dataset.
Figure 2: Generating subject labels from ISAW Library New Titles data

The first official version of the new site provides a map interface that is very similar to the old one based on Fusion Tables, with the addition of a few novel features. 

First, we changed the location markers to a set of highly-accessible and colorful symbols (note the legend on the left of the map). 

Second, coding our own interface allowed us to create a new feature in which entries in the list are linked to markers in the map and vice versa. Clicking a location on the map scrolls the list below the map to the proper entry. Clicking entries in the list zooms the map to that book’s specific location. This interaction between map and entry list allows for easier exploration by scholars seeking books related to their area of expertise. 

The interface also groups entries in nearby geographic regions, allowing any visitor to see at a glance how much new material is available in their area of study. The regional grouping and expansion behavior was specifically designed to be as intuitive as easy to use as possible, while also addressing the risks of information overload when large quantities of materials pertain to similar geographic areas. 

Finally, and perhaps most importantly, the database generated for this project represents a pioneering step forward—a link between books and the specifically ancient geographic areas they cover. This dataset, which now contains over 4,000 entries, can be used to train machine-learning algorithms to add helpful data about other books. For instance, we have already used these data to create an algorithm that assigns subject categories based on geographic information found in book titles. But there is no reason to use our map: you can make your own, or do whatever you want with the data and our machine-learning algorithm, since we are publishing both here on GitHub:

[Original post: https://isaw.nyu.edu/library/blog/new-titles-in-the-isaw-library]


Open Access Journal: Емінак

ISSN: 1998-4634
Емінак– щоквартальний академічний журнал відкритого доступу, що рецензується та представляє результати досліджень українських і зарубіжних вчених. Журнал створений у 2007 році Науково-дослідним центром «Лукомор’є» (м. Миколаїв, Україна) спільно з Інститутом археології Національної академії наук України (м. Київ, Україна).
Метою нашого журналу є залучення до співпраці та залучення уваги фахівців – істориків, філософів, соціологів, політологів; політичних діячів, представників зацікавлених організацій до конструктивного діалогу з актуальних проблем історичної науки. Обмін думками представників різних наукових шкіл, розгляд історичних процесів у контексті геополітики, соціокультурної динаміки дозволять виробити загальні підходи у наукових дослідженнях.
Завданням журналу є публікація робіт з питань історії, археології, етнології та краєзнавства, а також у виданні знайдуть своє місце праці, присвячені проблемам методики та методології історичної науки, джерелознавства й історіографії. В окремих випадках (наприклад, тематичне видання, статті за матеріалами міжнародних і всеукраїнських конференцій і т.п.) структура номера може бути коригована.
Редакція підтримує міждисциплінарні дослідження, а також академічні дискусії на сторінках журналу, розглядаючи його як майданчик для презентації різних точок зору, світоглядних концепцій, методологічних підходів до вирішення проблем історичної науки.

Eminak is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal with open access, presenting the research results of Ukrainian and foreign scholars. The journal was established in 2007 by the Scientific Research Centre «Lukomorie» (Mykolayiv, Ukraine) in cooperation with the Institute of Archeology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Kyiv, Ukraine).
The purpose of our journal is to engage in cooperation and attract the attention of experts - historians, philosophers, sociologists, political scientists; political figures, representatives of interested organizations to a constructive dialogue on relevant problems of historical science. Exchange of views of various scientific schools representatives, consideration of historical processes in the context of geopolitics, socio-cultural dynamics will allow to develop common approaches in scientific research.
The task of the journal is the publication of works on history, archaeology, ethnology and regional studies, as well as the works devoted to the problems of techniques and methodology of historical science, source study and historiography find their place in the publication. In some cases (for example, a thematic issue, papers on materials of international and all-Ukrainian conferences, etc.) the structure of the issue can be adjusted.
The editorial board supports interdisciplinary research, as well as academic discussions on the pages of the journal, considering it as a platform for presentation of different points of view, ideological concepts, methodological approaches to addressing problems of historical science.
  • 2020

  • No 4(32) (2020)

    Eminak: Scientific Quarterly Journal. 2020. N. 4 (32) (October-December)

  • No 3(31) (2020)

    Eminak: Scientific Quarterly Journal. 2020. N. 3 (31) (July-September)

  • No 2(30) (2020)

    Eminak: Scientific Quarterly Journal. 2020. N 2 (30) (April-June)

  • No 1(29) (2020)

    Special Issue: Materials of the II International Archaeological Conference «Archeology of Eastern Europe in the Prehistoric Era»


See the full List of Open Access Journals in Ancient Studies

Open Access Journal: Grecorromana: Revista Chilena de Estudios Clásicos

Grecorromana: Revista Chilena de Estudios Clásicos
ISSN: 0719-9902
00. Portada
Grecorromana: Revista chilena de estudios clásicos, es una publicación anual, dedicada al estudio del mundo antiguo grecorromano, así como a su proyección y recepción en períodos posteriores. Su propósito es establecer un espacio de análisis crítico y reflexivo sobre la Antigüedad, promoviendo el diálogo entre las disciplinas que componen los estudios clásicos. Grecorromana: mantiene una política de acceso abierto, por lo que ofrece su contenido gratuitamente a sus lectores.

Núm. 02 (2020)

Daniel Santibáñez Guerrero, “El problema de la relación ley-gobernante en la filosofía política de Platón”
Universidad Miguel de Cervantes


Valeria Riedemann Lorca, “La Apoteosis de Homero: a propósito de una estela votiva por Arquelaos de Priene y su rol en el arte helenístico”
University of Washington / Northwest College of Art & Design


Jimena Silva Salgado, “Las societates publicanorum en el abastecimiento militar: consideraciones económicas y jurídicas de una nueva logística de guerra (s. III-I a.C.)”
Investigadora, Módena, Italia


Andrés Cid Zurita y Leslie Lagos Aburto, “La muerte de los niños en el Occidente del Imperio Romano. Siglos I-III d.C. Aprontes para una discusión”
Athenian Periodical of Theory and Praxis / Universidad de Concepción


Leonardo Carrera Airola, “La epistula ad Mellitum de Gregorio Magno y la reinvención de lo sagrado: texto y contexto”
Univeridad Andrés Bello


RESEÑAS (Ver todas las reseñas)


Cristiana de Luca, “Emanuele Stolfi, La cultura giuridica dell’antica Grecia. Legge, politica, giustizia», Carocci, Roma, 2020, 282 pp.”
Università di Pisa, Laboratorio di Antropologia del Mondo Antico


Paulo Donoso Johnson, “Anna Guadagnucci, L’Italia del Nord nell’impero romano. Regioni e connettività, Edizioni ETS, Pisa, 2018, 245 pp.”
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso


Felipe Montanares Piña, “Leslie Lagos Aburto, El helenismo en el siglo II d.C. La cultura griega a través de la Anábasis de Arriano de Nicomedia, Editorial Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, 2016, 224 pp.”
Universidad de Concepción


Giulia Re, «David Braund, Greek Religion and Cult in the Black Sea region, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2018, 314 pp.
Università di Pisa – École Pratique des Hautes Étude

Núm. 01 (2019)

Open Access Journal: Bulletin archéologique des Écoles françaises à l’étranger


Bulletin archéologique des Écoles françaises à l’étranger

Logo Réseau des écoles françaises à l'étranger

Créé en 2020, le Bulletin archéologique des Écoles françaises à l’étranger propose les contributions de l’École française d’Athènes, de l’École française de Rome, de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale, de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient et de la Casa de Velázquez, réunis au sein du Réseau des Écoles françaises à l’étranger. C’est ainsi toute l’actualité des recherches archéologiques menées par ces institutions, sur tout le pourtour méditerranéen mais aussi dans les Balkans, en Inde et en Asie qui est proposée dans ce Bulletin exclusivement électronique, multilingue et à la publication continue.

Derniers textes

Sites archéologiques

See AWOL's full List of Open Access Journals in Ancient Studies


The Enigma of the Hyksos Volume I


ASOR Conference Boston 2017 - ICAANE Conference Munich 2018 – Collected Papers
Herausgeber: Bietak, Manfred / Prell, Silvia
Bandnummer: 9
Umfang/Format: 418 pages, 192 ill., 30 tables, 23 diagrams, 26 maps, 3 plates
Sprache: English
Ausstattung: Book (Hardback)
Abmessungen: 21.00 × 29.70 cm
Gewicht: 1968g
Erscheinungsdatum: 17.12.2019
Preise: 128,00 Eur[D] / 131,60 Eur[A]
ISBN: 978-3-447-11332-8
DOI: 10.13173/9783447113328
At the end of the Early Bronze Age, people were clearly on the move, settlements were abandoned and the reasons for this phenomenon, either political, economic, ecological or social in nature, are partly still mysterious. Although differentiated regional clusters are in many cases still not easy to pinpoint, it becomes clear that the ‘Greater Levantine Area’, was, despite all differences, embedded into networks of interregional connectivity most likely sustained by trade relations. At Tell el-Dab’a/Avaris, a major harbour town and trade centre in the Middle Bronze Age, it is not astonishing that diverse foreign contacts to different regions throughout the Levant can be established in the material culture. Concerning the origin of the inhabitants of Avaris, the current research seems to point to a provenance, at least of the elite, the ‘decision makers’, to northernmost Syria and northern Mesopotamia as shown by comparable religious and funerary concepts.
This volume comprises the collected papers of two workshops organised by the ERC Advanced Grant “The Enigma of the Hyksos” under the direction of Manfred Bietak during the ASOR Conference held in Boston in November 2017 and the ICAANE Conference held in Munich in April 2018. They specifically aimed to gain a better understanding of the Western Asiatic populations settling in the eastern Delta of Egypt from the late Middle Kingdom to the early New Kingdom. Of particular interest are their exact origins and ways of migration that can be explored by means of different comparative cultural studies as well as bio-archaeological approaches.

Open Access Books from Harrassowitz


58,00 Eur

Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva / Kahl, Jochem / Lee, Eun-Jung (Hg.) 

48,00 Eur

Hasegawa, Shuichi / Radner, Karen (Hg.) 
Case studies in Eastern and Western Peripheries 

88,00 Eur

Rutishauser, Susanne 
Studien zur Kultur und Landschaftsgeschichte des Ebenen Kilikien 

58,00 Eur

Römer, Cornelia E. (Hg.) 
Acts of the 7th International Fayoum Symposium. 29 October–3 November 2018 in Cairo and the Fayoum 

128,00 Eur

Bietak, Manfred / Prell, Silvia (Hg.) 
ASOR Conference Boston 2017 - ICAANE Conference Munich 2018 – Collected Papers 

98,00 Eur

Bietak, Manfred / Matthiae, Paolo / Prell, Silvia (Hg.) 
Proceedings of a workshop held at the 10th ICAANE in Vienna, 25–26 April 2016 

35,00 Eur

Domenici, Davide / Marchetti, Nicolò (Hg.) 
Papers of a Cross-Cultural Seminar held in Honor of Robert McCormick Adams 

89,00 Eur

48,00 Eur

Vogel, Christian 
Philosophische Grundlagen und didaktische Methoden eines spätantiken Wissenstransfers

Classica Orientalia. Essays Presented to Wiktor Andrzej Daszewski on his 75th Birthday

Henryk Meyza, Iwona Zych (eds), Warsaw: PCMA UW, Wydawnictwo DiG, 2011

Warsaw 2011
ISBN 978-83-7181-721-2
460 pages
Hard cover

The double anniversary of 50 years of archaeological research and the 75th birthday of prof. Wiktor Andrzej Daszewski has been honored with the publication of a book: Classica Orientalia. Essays Presented to Wiktor Andrzej Daszewski on his 75th Birthday.

Classica Orientalia is a collection of essays presented to Prof. Wiktor Andrzej Daszewski by his friends, colleagues and associates on the occasion of his 75th birthday. Themes derive from archaeological and related sciences research carried out on Hellenistic, Graeco-Roman, Byzantine and Islamic sites in the Eastern Mediterranean (mainly Egypt, Syria and Cyprus). Polish archaeological and conservation projects are extensively represented, reflecting the interests and lifetime achievement of Professor Daszewski. Contributors include Jean-Charles Balty, Janine Balty, Giuseppina Capriotti-Vittozzi, Rafał Czerner, Piotr Dyczek, Pavlos Flourentzos, Michał Gawlikowski, Włodzimierz Godlewski, Tomasz Herbich, Maria Kaczmarek, Zsolt Kiss, Jerzy Kolendo, Barbara Lichocka, John Lund, Adam Łajtar, Adam Łukaszewicz, Grzegorz Majcherek, Henryk Meyza, Karol Myśliwiec, Zofia Sztetyłło and others.

The volume was issued by the Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology of the University of Warsaw with which Prof. Daszewski has been associated for two decades, first as its Secretary and then as Director, as well as head of two missions – in Nea Paphos on Cyprus and in Marina el-Alamein in Egypt.

Acknowledgment: The jubilar book Classica Orientalia. Essays presented to Wiktor Andrzej Daszewski on his 75th Birthday was published by Wydawnictwo DiG in conjunction with the Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology, University of Warsaw.

The Editors are grateful to DiG Editor-in-Chief Dr. hab. Sławomir Górzyński for making the electronic version of the articles available for presentation free on the PCMA website in commemoration of Prof. Daszewski’s death in January 2021.

The book can still be purchased from the DiG website


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Wiktor Andrzej Daszewski: list of publications

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Foreword, pp. 11–12

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.11-12
Author: Piotr Bieliński

Abstract: Foreword to the jubilar volume for Professor Wiktor Andrzej Daszewski, archaeologist and art historian, former Director of the Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology, University of Warsaw and head of Polish excavations at Nea Paphos in Cyprus and Marina el-Alamein in Egypt, on his 75th birthday anniversary.

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Wiktor Andrzej Daszewski: Essay presented on his 75th birthday anniversary, pp. 13–29

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.13-42
Author: Krystyna Polaczek and Iwona Zych

Abstract: A portrait of Professor Wiktor Andrzej Daszewski (who died on 17 January 2021), his life achievement and scientific output, presented to the jubilarian on the occasion of his 75th birthday. Daszewski directed the Polish excavations at Nea Paphos in Cyprus from 2006, continuing his studies there even when retired, discovered and excavated for 20 years the Graeco-Roman harbor site at Marina el-Alamein on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, and published a number of books on the mosaic art. He acted as Director of the Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology University of Warsaw from 1980 to 1989, and contributed to saving and restoring the archaeological heritage of Carthage under the UNESCO umbrella.

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Interprétation de la lettre ταῦ sur le vêtement du Christ et du geste de l’ogdoade sur la mosaïque absidiale de l’église Santa Pudenziana à Rome, 43–72

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.43-72
Author: Krzysztof Babraj

Abstract: The author explores the interpretation of the Greek letter tau on the robe of Christ represented on the 4th-century apsidal mosaic in the church of Santa Pudenziana in Rome, as well as the sign of the Ogdoad that Christ makes with his fingers. He discusses the ancient written sources for the symbolic meaning of the letter, as well as the letters iota and gamma, also found in similar early Christian contexts, as well as the iconographic evidence for the use of the letter tau, seen as a cross in shape, in glyptics, amulets, inscriptions and relief sculpture on sarcophagi, among others. In the context of the Santa Pudenziana mosaic, the presence of the letter is significant for the interpretation of the representation as symbolizing the redemption of man through the Passion of the Lord. The sign of the Ogdoad should be seen as evocation of the universal nature of the resurrection of Christ for all mankind, making the presence of the tau on Christ’s robes in this representation entirely comprehensible.

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Le rinceau d’acanthe à fond noir dans la mosaïque syrienne : l’exemple de Mariamin, pp. 73–88

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.73-88
Author: Janine Balty

Abstract: The motif of masks appearing in the ornamental “inhabited” scrolling plant borders of mosaics from the 2nd and 3rd century AD, discovered in Syria (Apamea and Palmyra among others) is discussed based on the border of the Mosaic of the Musicians from Mariamin in Syria, which is one of the most complex and best preserved of its kind, dated to the close of the 2nd century AD. The origin of the motif and its significance—protection of the house and tomb offered by mythical figures like Oceanus and the Gorgons—is considered, chronological issues concerning the motif and its longevity in late antique Christian art.

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Une « nouvelle » dédicace apaméenne à Cn. Marcius Rustius Rufinus, pp. 89–95

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.89-95
Author: Jean-Charles Balty

Abstract: The dedication to Cn. Marcius Rutius Rufinus “rediscovered” in the documentation of the Belgian team excavating Apamea in Syria lends grounds for the author to reconsider another inscription, published earlier, honoring the same man, who was a prefect of the Ravenna and Misenum fleets and at the peak of his illustrious career a praefectus vigilum urbi in Rome. The inscription in question is a dedication of the North Gate by the city boule (council), which is presumed to have been part of the rebuilding project after the earthquake of AD 47. The restitution of the text indicates that the Apameans making the dedication belonged to the Fabia, Roman citizens but not representing all of the citizens of Apamea, who honored Marcius Rutius Rufinus at the moment in his life when he left the city to command the Ravenna fleet.

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Aphrodite in Egypt. Images of the goddess from Marina el-Alamein, pp. 97–114

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.97-114
Author: Grażyna Bąkowska-Czerner

Abstract: The author explores the images of Aphrodite—statuary in marble and bronze, oil lamp discus iconography—originating from the Polish excavations at the site of the ancient town at Marina el-Alamein on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, tracing the religious syncretism (in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt, Aphrodite was linked with the Egyptian goddess Isis), concerning also other Greek gods, that obviously pervaded the affluent community living there. The marble head of Aphrodite and the lamp with a scene of Aphrodite with two Erotes were found in House 19 and they are dated, respectively, to the late Hellenistic/early Roman period and the second half of the 1st–2nd century AD. A bronze statuette of Aphrodite pudica came from a disturbed but apparently ritual context and is dated, like the lamp, to the second half of the 1st–2nd century AD. The evidence collected in the article shows that the goddess, depicted in different forms inspired by Hellenistic and even earlier, Classical, art, made of different materials and with apparently different purposes in mind, was very popular with the inhabitants of this small town on the Egyptian coast. The finds from Marina el-Alamein are an interesting example of syncretism developing in the Roman period.

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Un gruppo scultoreo da Dendera al Museo del Cairo: due fanciulli divini e i due luminari, pp. 115–127

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.115-127
Author: Giuseppina Capriotti-Vittozzi

Abstract: The sculptural group in stone reconsidered in this article is a representation of a couple of youthful figures, standing entwined in the coils of two large serpents, crowned with a solar disk and a lunar crescent. The statue was discovered in Dendera in 1918 and is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo (JE 46278). A hypothetical identification proposed by the author would see in the figures the twin children of Cleopatra VII and Mark Anthony, represented here as the two Egyptian astral deities. The author explores the iconographic and stylistic issues involved, arriving at a late Ptolemaic date for the sculpture, fitting for the proposed identification.

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The peristyle of House H1 in the ancient town at Marina el-Alamein, pp. 129–146

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.129-146
Author: Rafał Czerner

Abstract: A thorough study of the architectural elements found in the ruins of House H1 in the northern part of the ancient town at the site of Marina el-Alamein led to a reconstruction of a two-storeyed portico around the inner courtyard. The upper storey of the peristyle would have accommodated the galleries from which one could enter the rooms on the first floor. The author, an architectural historian, presents the architecture and proportions of two-storeyed peristyle porticoes as they would have been implemented at this seaside town in the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, just 100 km west of Alexandria, and uses this example to review the known parallels from other regions, including the “Palazzo delle Colonne” in Ptolemais and the Meroitic Palace of Natakamani in Gebel Barkal, Sudan. He concludes that both the general layout of the house at Marina el-Alamein and the two-storeyed peristyle architectural design were hardly unique in the Hellenistic and Roman world of North Africa, but what made the Marina house different was the stateliness of its appearance.

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Roman fine pottery from a cellar under Oil-press E.I at Chhim (Lebanon), pp. 147–156

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.147-156
Author: Krzysztof Domżalski

Abstract: The paper considers a set of surprisingly well preserved Eastern Sigillata A and Late Roman C/Phocean Red Slip Ware and D/“Cypriot” Red Sip Ware vessels from the late 1st–early 2nd century AD, found in the bedding fill of a cellar floor of an oil pres building located in the mountain village of Chhim in Lebanon. The set included plates (EAS Forms 35, 37B, 53), a jug (ESA Form 108) and dishes (LRC Form 1?, LRD Form 1). Local plain pottery was represented by Chhim Ware jugs and table amphorae. The deposit was dated contextually to the mid 1st-century AD and linked to the earliest village occupation in the area. It demonstrated that the residents of the village in the early Roman age, most probably involved in the profitable olive-oil industry of the times, had means enough to curry to a fashion for owning some of the best tableware available on the Levantine coastal market.

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From the history of ancient Rhizon/Risinium: Why the Illyrian king Agron and queen Teuta came to a bad end and who was Ballaios? pp. 157–174

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.157-174
Author: Piotr Dyczek

Abstract: The author, who has headed the University of Warsaw excavation project in Risan/Rhizon on the Adriatic coast in Montenegro since 2001, reviews the results of excavations ten years into the project and explores the archaeological evidence for historical sources mentioning the ill-fated King Agron and Queen Teuta, the latter being the queen who faced off the Romans in the Third Illyrian War before ultimately succumbing to the invaders. Also described is a hoard of more than 4000 bronze coins of a ruler called Ballaios, forgotten by history, whose person is now slowly being reintroduced into the lineage of Illyrian dynasts, correcting the erroneous dating that Arthur Evans, who was the first to note the existence of this king, assigned to his reign.

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New evidence of the aniconic iconography of Astarte-Aphrodite in Cyprus, pp. 175–182

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.175-182
Author: Pavlos Flourentzos

Abstract: The author considers the aniconic iconography of the goddess Astarte-Aphrodite in Cyprus/. The baetyl was venerated throughout the Levant in antiquity and its importance in the worship of this goddess on the island attests to strong Oriental influence shaping cultic practice. The new evidence for the aniconic cult presented in the paper consists of a group of three clay naiskoi coming from Amathus and two as yet unpublished portable baetyls of marble found in Kourion, similar to the image said to come from the Paphian sanctuary of Aphrodite represented on Roman coins. The conclusion is that the baetyl cult practice in Cyprus was not limited to the Paphos area and its roots can be traced to the Cypro Archaic I period, It continued to have a remarkable influence in later periods as well and its revival in the Roman period illustrated the growing popularity of cultic practices of Oriental origin.

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Bagatelles épigraphiques, pp. 183–191

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.183-191
Author: Michał Gawlikowski

Abstract: The author revisits three different inscriptions from the ruins of Palmyra, either reused or in secondary position, providing readings and interpretation. A text on a console commemorates Marta, daughter of Nabuzabad and grandaughter of Zabdibol Simon; her statue was erected posthumously in the Great Colonnade. A block reused in the Temple of Bel propylae bears a fragment of an inscription in the Palmyrene script carved on the base of a statue with which the People’s Council commemorated Barateh son of Zebida and grandson of Zabda Borra. The third inscription is on a column drum, identifying the donor of five columns as Zabdai son of Zabadnebo Qahzan; a longer inscription to this effect is already known and is referred to the west portico of the grand courtyard of the Bel sanctuary.

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Mosaic floor from the sanctuary of the EC.II cathedral in Dongola, pp. 193–198

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.193-198
Author: Włodzimierz Godlewski

Abstract: One of the civilizational innovations brought to Dongola, the capital of the rising Nubian Kingdom of Makuria, located in what is today central Sudan, was the art of laying mosaics. However, it seems to have been a one-off undertaking, the whim of a bishop in the second half of the 7th century. Two floors have been excavated to date, both pebble mosaics with geometric black patterns against a white background (one in the eastern end of the nave of the EC.II Cathedral in the lower town and the other in a small three-aisled basilica on the outskirts, referred to as MC.II), both locally made out of stone pebbles collected locally. The art did not take root among the local craftsmen and gave way to technically easier and functionally more practical ceramic-tile pavements used prolifically in later Dongola.

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Roman ceramic thymiaterion from a Coptic hermitage in Thebes, pp. 199–207

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.199-207
Author: Tomasz Górecki

Abstract: The rather massive and relatively well-preserved incense burner, distinguished not only by its size and weight, but also by quality of execution and elaborate painted decoration, was found in the fill of a Coptic hermitage located in a disused Pharaonic tomb at Sheikh Abd el-Gurna in West Thebes. A consideration of a limited set of known parallels for this thymiaterion, which is not a well studied form among the pottery from Roman Egypt, placed this piece between the Hellenistic and late Roman periods, more specifically, in the 3rd–4th century AD when a characteristic kind of slip started being used on the more “elegant” ceramic vessels. It must have come from either a tomb or rich residential surroundings, and found its way to the hermitage with the monks who were resourceful collecting of a whole range of “antiquarian” objects which they adapted for other uses.

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Geophysics applied to the investigation of Graeco-Roman coastal towns west of Alexandria: the case of Marina el-Alamein, pp. 209–231

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.209-231
Author: Tomasz Herbich, Harald van der Osten-Woldenburg and Iwona Zych

Abstract: The results of a 1998 and 1999 geophysical survey conducted at the site of Marina el-Alamein, using two methods, magnetic prospection and ground-penetrating radar surveying, are discussed in the paper. Herbich and van der Osten-Woldenburg also assess the feasibility of the two methods in the specific geological (limestone bedrock and beach sand) and environmental (high ground salinity) of the site. The surveys were carried out in three different areas, chosen specifically to investigate: A – northern part of the necropolis; B – urban district among residential remains in the northern part, close to the harbor; and C – urban area on the eastern fringes of the city. The GPR method was found to be the most effective in this particular kind of setting, especially with regard to locating subterranean features like burial chambers. The magnetic method was more useful in the urban areas where higher magnetic susceptibility resulted in streets being mapped and archaeological units being traced in outline. Zych contributed a discussion of the results of archaeological truthing of the geophysical findings, including an unfinished tomb S26 and a few hypogea that were located and excavated thanks to information from the geophysical prospection.

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Human remains from Marina el-Alamein, pp. 233–257

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.233-257
Author: Maria Kaczmarek

Abstract: The aim of the paper is to draw a health profile of a past human population—the Graeco-Roman inhabitants of a harbor city at the site of Marina el-Alamein on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt—and to study levels of adaptation of this population to the environment in which it lived. The author presents her methodology: the conceptual framework, skeletal inventory and scoring procedures, the uses her data to discuss in detail the paleodemography (demographic population structure and patterns of mortality) and physiological stress (disruption of growth and maturation), which can be defined as a physical disruption resulting from unhealthy environmental conditions with deleterious effect on both the individual and population level. Life expectancy was found to be at 39.1 years for males and 33.4 years for women. Based on skeletal growth of the most vulnerable subgroups of the population, infants and children, The people who were buried in the tombs of Marina el-Alamein lived a stressful life in an impoverished environment and their diet was inadequate. Overall dental health was very poor, significantly more so among women, and the high rates of arthritis and degenerative diseases of the spine and the major joints were suggestive of heavy workloads in life.

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Deux fragments de portraits funéraires romains de Deir el-Bahari, pp. 259–266

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.259-266
Author: Zsolt Kiss

Abstract: Two fragments of painted Roman funerary portraits on wooden panels of the Fayum type, discovered in 2001 during a revisiting of the Third Intermediate Period shaft tombs inside the Chapel of Hatshepsut in the Royal Mortuary Cult Complex at the Temple of Hatshepsut in Deir el-Bahari, come from 19th century excavations, hence are without anything but a general context. The pieces are very small—fragment of a robe, sliver of a face with one eye—but in a brilliant analysis of iconography and style Kiss identifies one as a depiction of a female, possibly a priestess of Isis, from the second half of the 2nd century AD, and the other as a male portrait from the 2nd century. The portraits may belong to what some scholars have called “Theban” painted funerary portraits and they must have come from a Roman necropolis in West Thebes, possibly Deir el-Medineh. On any case, they are proof that mummies with painted portraits of the deceased on wooden panels fitted into the cartonnages were not unknown in ancient Thebes.

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Zita, une ville oubliée de Tripolitaine, pp. 267–275

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.267-275
Author: Jerzy Kolendo

The paper presents some general historical considerations on the margin of François Queyel’s excellent archaeological study of the late 19th-century discoveries made in the forum of the city of Zita on the Zarzis peninsula in Tripolitania, including marble sculptures and inscriptions. The considerations amplify the interpretation of specific archaeological finds, leading to the conclusion that the rapid evolution and romanization of the ancient Punic city took place shortly after the failed revolt of the Numidian Berber leader Tacfarinas (AD 14–37).

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Glass medallion in the shape of a lion’s head mask, pp. 277–285

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.277-285
Author: Renata Kucharczyk

Abstract: A glass appliqué in the shape a lion’s head mask is an example of applied decoration found on late Roman glasses, which may have actually seen extended use as a keepsake or amulet, long after the vessel itself, presumably a globular or conical handled jug or bulbous flagon, had been broken. The medallion in high relief was found during Polish excavations on Kom el-Dikka in 2007, in a cut from the early Islamic period containing fill of mixed date, from late Roman to early Islamic. The paper considers parallels for the piece, both published and unpublished, from excavations in Egypt as well as museum collections worldwide. All are considered to be made in Egyptian workshops and representing traditional “Egyptian” themes, although the idea of decorating glass vessels with applied medallions was hardly a novel idea in the late Roman period and was a continuation of a tradition from Imperial times, but with a different range of motifs. Glass masks of this kind appeared also on other vessels, like glass cinerary urns, for example, and continued to be applied as decoration on late Sassanian and early Islamic products.

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Delta–epsilon issues of Elagabalus and Severus Alexander, pp. 287–323

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.287-323
Author: Barbara Lichocka

Abstract: The paper sums up the discoveries of delta–epsilon issues of the Roman emperors Elagabalus and Severus Alexander, altogether 102 coins representing small and medium change (a detailed tabular catalogue is attached), from excavations at various sites in Cyprus, as well as several dozen coins of unknown provenance in museum collections. There is sound reason to believe that this type was a local issue struck in Cyprus for use in the province and not for distribution outside it. However, it is equally possible that the coins were struck in Syria and coin flow between Cyprus and Syria and Palestine on both directions has been confirmed for the times of the Severan dynasty by finds belonging to different issues. The paper considers other possible reasons for the concentration of coin finds of this type in Cyprus, especially Kourion, as well as a similar large group found at Dura Europos in Syria. One possible reason was ensuring that enough small and medium change was in local supply to cover soldiers’ pay, a requirement that was as much political as economic. The coins of Elagabalus could have been minted at Laodicea ad Mare, but they could also have been produced in Cyprus from Cypriot copper and sent out to Syria. With regard to the coins struck for Severus Alexander, they seem to have been made in Cyprus, but the variations in fabric, inscriptions, lettering and details of design indicate more than one workshop involved in this production, while the specimens of low weight and minuscule dimensions even suggest that this production not always took place in the official mints.

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Head vases of the Magenta Group from Cyprus, pp. 325–340

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.325-340
Author: John Lund

Abstract: The paper deals with a sub-species of the so-called “Magenta Group” of plastic pottery vessels, that is, handled flasks in the shape of a human head, developing an idea voiced by Demetrios Michaelidis in an authoritative study of the vases known from Cyprus, that at least these vessels could have been produced on the island. The head vases fall into two broad categories: displaying Egyptian stylistic traits (Category I) and in Greek style (Category II). Upon review of the evidence, it seems that the Cypriot workshops producing such vases (pending petrographic analyses of the clay fabric) were located somewhere in the central part of southern Cyprus, from at least the last quarter of the 3rd century BC most probably through the 1st century AD. The earliest vases display Egyptian stylistic traits; later specimens in the Greek style, which emerged in the (second half?) 2nd century BC, represent figures associated with wine consumption, which may suggest their production for a special occasion like a cultic feast.

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Divus Probus(?) in a fragmentary building(?) inscription in Latin found in Kato (Nea) Paphos, Cyprus, pp. 341–352

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.341-352
Author: Adam Łajtar

Abstract: The paper concerns a fragmentary Latin inscription on a broken slab of marble, found in secondary fill in the residential villa excavated by the Polish team in Nea Paphos. It is dated by the type of script to the second half of the 3rd or the first half of the 4th century AD. A review of an updated collection of Latin texts (including some bilingual inscriptions in Latin and Greek) discovered in Cyprus demonstrated that they are either directly or indirectly connected with the Roman state and Roman institutions. The juncture cum porticibus indicates that it was either a building inscription or a honorific inscription for someone, possibly Divus Probus (although the text could be supplemented with the names of other divine or divinized figures), who was involved in some kind of building activity, either by giving money for the construction or by consecrating it. The commemoration could have concerned the construction of an important administrative building (praetorium), military installation, road station etc. or a municipal structure founded by a Roman or consecrated by a Roman state official and incorporating a portico (bath, market place, theater, temple, etc.).

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A fish from the sea, pp. 353–356

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.353-356
Author: Adam Łukaszewicz

Abstract: The author uses the vehicle of a jubilar text to explore fish transport in antiquity looking at the issue from the point of view of Egyptian Alexandria. For instance, the appearance of Pontic salted fish on the Alexandrian market is testimony of far-flung trade. Papyri bring several mentions of such salted fish of superior quality (tarichos leptos) being sent to enrich the staple diet of the Oxyrhynchite elite. The fish that reached Oxyrhynchus could have also come from the Red Sea, taking advantage of fairly regular communication in the Roman period. Salted fish were also produced locally in Egypt, mostly from river fish, by the fishermen, but also by professional taricheutae, who were also the embalmers preparing the mummies.

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The Cretan presence in Marina el-Alamein, pp. 357–378

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.357-378
Author: Grzegorz Majcherek and Iwona Zych

Abstract: The purpose of the article is to examine the surprisingly extensive and varied evidence of Cretan finds in the archaeological record of the PCMA UW excavations at the site of the ancient Graeco-Roman harbor in Marina el-Alamein on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt and to propose an interpretation going beyond the usual and obvious, for this period and place, trade exchange. The evidence includes pottery, mainly amphorae, a numerous group of so-called Cretan or Ivy-leaf terracotta oil lamps, a tentative Cretan-sourced custom of using gold plaques with Orphic symbolism placed into the mouths of initiates in preparation for burial, as well as a female name in Doric Greek carved on one of the pillar tombs, which could have belonged to a woman of Cretan origin. The distribution of the Cretan amphora in Egypt, as reviewed by Majcherek, merits attention in the light of what it says about consumers and their individual and collective preferences. In turn, the Cretan lamps, which are otherwise not found in Egypt and the bulk of which were found as grave goods in burials, were most probably valued possessions of a specific group, a mark of cultural belonging, a memento of home, perhaps even a religious attribute. The finds from Marina el-Alamein must be considered in the context of Crete’s bilateral relations with Egypt—political, cultural and commercial—and the integration of Crete in the pan-Mediterranean economic system of Roman times. The conclusion is that the assemblage in question rests well within the frame of this overall picture of mutual contacts, but one could go further and propose to view the finds as proof of tentative Cretan colony, whether mercenaries/veterans with their families or merchants and their agents.

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A mask of ἡγεμών θεράπων with ὄγκος(?) from Paphos, pp. 379–386

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.379-386
Author: Henryk Meyza

Abstract: A marble fragment of a large statue from the ’Hellenistic House’ turned out to have been  remodelled on the back side to the likeness of a theatrical mask. This representation is unfinished and it is not certain what was the purpose of such reuse. Masks were initially related to the cult of Dionysus. The apotropaic and soteriadic character of masks was reflected in their funerary use, and has developed into symbolism of peace, well-being and abundance. As a symbol of Dionysus, they were used as decoration in various circumstances, with whole sets of dramatic and comedy personages put on display in the peristyles of the wealthy. Whole sets were shown in galleries of theatrical personages as stocks available for actors, helping also spectators in the identification of characters, as those listed in the Onomastikon of the lexicographer Pollux. Representations of masks, and the descriptions, transcend types and are in many cases difficult to identify with a specific mask in such lists. In the case of the Paphos find, the asymmetric rendering of the features of this small, unfinished piece makes it half-angry and half-prying, somewhere between the Principal Slave and some other New Comedy persona.

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L’acquis des fouilles de Tell Atrib pour la connaissance de l’époque ptolémaïque, pp. 387–398

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.387-398
Author: Karol Myśliwiec

Abstract: The article gives a brief overview of the archaeological evidence for the Ptolemaic phase in the existence of ancient Athribis, a site located in modern Benha in the Nile delta in Egypt. Excavation of the part of the site around Kom Sidi Youssouf revealed a sequence of layers dated as follows: the earliest from the beginning of the Ptolemaic period through the reign of Ptolemy V (a); essentially the reign of Ptolemy VI through the second half of the 2nd century BC (b); and the later Ptolemaic period through the beginning of the Roman period, the latter phase largely disturbed by later activities at the site. The investigated quarter was not settled before the second half of the 4th century BC  and later developed into a vibrant workshop quarter producing pottery and terracottas, stone figurines, faience vessels, gold jewelry and sundry other objects. Many of the artifacts, a selection of which is presented in the paper, were most certainly produced as devotional objects for sale and use in the numerous shrines and temples that appear to have existed in this part of the ancient city. The assemblage is characterized by a high quality of execution and iconographic originality, showing that the artists—assumedly Egyptian, Greek and Oriental—reached for the best Hellenistic models for their craftwork.

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Najwcześniejsza polska wzmianka o sycylijskich antiquitates (with summary in English), pp. 399–411

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.399-411
Author: Janusz A. Ostrowski

Abstract: The earliest Polish record of Sicilian antiquities, dated to 1595, was given by a traveler on his way to the Holy Land, not a clergyman and not a scholar, but a strong and resilient middle-aged man given to long walks in the countryside. A surviving fragment of the diary written by this man, whose name has not been preserved, was published in 1925. It is unique in Old Polish literature with regard to Sicily, its towns and monuments, erudite in knowledge of ancient literary sources. The paper reviews (in Polish) this report.

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The contribution of Kraków archaeologists to excavating Nea Paphos, the ancient capital of Cyprus, pp. 413–424

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.413-424
Author: Ewdoksia Papuci-Władyka

Abstract: The author presents the contribution of archaeologists from the Jagiellonian University in Kraków to the excavation project conducted by Wiktor Andrzej Daszewski for the Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology of the University of Warsaw in Nea Paphos on Cyprus. A brief general description of the Warsaw project is given in lieu of an introduction. Describing the Kraków contribution, the author discusses the results of her ceramological studies on pottery of Hellenistic date, which produced data in support of some of architectural hypotheses, while revising others, notably introducing a new five-phase chronology. The author goes on to discuss other accomplishments of the expedition, including celebrations of the 40th anniversary of Daszewski’s excavations in Paphos, and announces the launching of the Paphos Agora Project under her direction.

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“Megarian” bowls from Tell Atrib, pp. 425–445

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.425-440
Author: Anna Południkiewicz

Abstract: Hemispherical “Megarian” bowls, produced from the 3rd to the 1st century BC, were an imported luxury ware common on the tables of the Ptolemaic/Hellenistic elite in Egypt. The collection of 16 vessels of this kind from the Polish excavations at Tell Atrib/Athribis, discovered between 1969 and 1999, is for the most part well stratified, dated contextually by coins and amphora stamp handles to two broader horizons: second half of the 3rd and first half of the 2nd century BC, and the turn of the 2nd century BC. Three variants were distinguished by the author, differentiated by details of the relief decoration. The group of vessels catalogued in this article originated probably from Ionian workshops in Asia Minor.

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Amphoras on Knidian amphoras, pp. 441–450

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.441-450
Author: Zofia Sztetyłło

Abstract: The article traces the motif of an amphora in the iconography of Knidian amphora stamps in an effort to date with greater precision a Knidian amphora with two stamped handles discovered in the excavations at Marina el-Alamein. In effect, the handleless amphora stamp on the container from Marina was assigned to Period VII and dates most probably to the end of the 1st century AD. Additionally, the author discusses other motifs occurring on Knidian amphora stamps, including a bucranium, prora, anchor, oar and rudder, bee, bunch of grapes, and heroes and deities, such as Poseidon represented by a dolphin and trident, Dionysus related to the thyrsus amd Hermes seen in a caduceus and herm.

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Two “armed” terracottas from Athribis, pp. 451–459

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37343/pcma.uw.dig.9788371817212.pp.451-459
Author: Hanna Szymańska

Abstract: Two terracotta figurines, identified as Athena and as an armed Eros, found in layers from the 2nd century BC at the ancient site of Athribis in the Egyptian Nile Delta, count among the hugely popular pieces of the coroplastic arts drawing stylistic inspiration from Ptolemaic art. Athribian craftsmen were masters at depicting characteristic human types and imitating models from other craft centers, like Alexandria. The Athena figurine (only head preserved) appears to be a unique representation of the goddess crafted out of local clay in a clay workshop by a craftsman inspired by the physiognomy of the reigning Ptolemaic queens. The Eros figurine, depicted in an “Italic” muscle cuirass extremely rare in Egyptian artifacts and holding a Gaulish thureos shield, confirms the exceptional character of the Athribian coroplastic workshops.

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Twelfth Birmingham Colloquium on the Textual Criticism of the New Testament YouTube Channel

Twelfth Birmingham Colloquium on the Textual Criticism of the New Testament YouTube Channel
Recordings of papers delivered online at the Twelfth Birmingham Colloquium on the Textual Criticism of the New Testament from January to March 2021.




Il diritto alla sepoltura nel Mediterraneo antico

Il diritto alla sepoltura nel Mediterraneo antico
Il profondo rinnovamento dell’archeologia funeraria, a seguito dello sviluppo dell’archeotanatologia nel corso degli ultimi trenta anni, ci spinge, oggi, a riconsiderare la nozione di “sepoltura” con particolare riguardo alle pratiche funerarie ma anche a quelle giuridiche e rituali relative alla cura dei morti nel Mediterraneo antico. Quali erano i defunti che avevano diritto alla sepoltura, ossia coloro che godevano di un luogo a loro dedicato, nel corso di una cerimonia più o meno sviluppata? Secondo quali criteri (età, sesso, statussociale, stato di salute…) erano selezionati, raggruppati, onorati? Quali autorità si prendevano carico della gestione delle salme e degli spazi funerari? Quali leggi regolavano la protezione delle sepolture e, al tempo stesso, condannavano la loro violazione? Infine, cosa avveniva del corpo di coloro che si vedevano rifiutare l’accesso allo spazio funerario?
Questo volume collettivo, basato sulle testimonianze della storia, della storia del diritto, dell’archeologia, dell’antropologia biologica e dell’epigrafia, cerca di dare delle risposte a queste domande attraverso una serie di studiprincipalmente incentrati sul mondo greco-romano dal primo millennio a.C. fino alla fine dell’Antichità. Frutto delle tre giornate di studio internazionali tenutesi a Roma tra il 2015 e il 2017, il volume presenta un approccio pluridisciplinare a questi temi, un bilancio delle recenti acquisizioni e una messa in prospettiva di queste tematiche, problematiche e metodologiche, per la riflessione sull’archeologia funeraria del Mediteerraneo antico.
  • Éditeur : Publications de l’École française de Rome
  • Collection : Collection de l'École française de Rome | 582
  • Lieu d’édition : Rome
  • Année d’édition : 2021
  • Publication sur OpenEdition Books : 04 mars 2021
  • EAN (Édition imprimée) : 9782728314416
  • EAN électronique : 9782728314751
  • Nombre de pages : 366 p.

ine-Marie BérardLe droit à la sépulture dans la Méditerranée antique : regards croisés

Maria Giovanna Belcastro et Valentina Mariotti
Morti senza sepoltura, morti sepolti, e sepolture anomale

Riflessioni metodologiche tra terminologia e interpretazione

L'ammissione dei defunti agli spazi funerari

Paola Catalano, Stefania Di Giannantonio et Walter Pantanob
Organizzazione funeraria e struttura sociale degli inumati di Casal Bertone (Roma, I-III sec. d.C.)

Ipotesi antropologiche

Caroline Laforest et Dominique Castex
Le droit de sépulture dans les tombes monumentales en Asie Mineure romaine

L’exemple de la tombe 163d de la nécropole nord de Hiérapolis (Phrygie, Turquie, Ier-VIIe siècles de notre ère)

Sepolture "anomale" , esclusione dalla sepoltura e depositi umani non funerari

Anita Crispino et Massimo Cultraro
Sepolture anomale e mutilazioni rituali

Per un’archeologia della trasformazione del corpo del defunto nella Sicilia centro meridionale del Bronzo antico

Valentina Mariotti, Donato Labate, Luigi Malnati et al.
I resti umani delle discariche di epoca romana dello scavo ex Parco Novi Sad (Modena)
Donato Labate, Giorgio Gruppioni, Vania Milani et al.
Corpi smembrati non sepolti di età romana dal Modenese




Penser la tolérance durant l’Antiquité tardive

Penser la tolérance durant l’Antiquité tardive

 La tolérance est une vertu cardinale dans les sociétés occidentales, et son histoire est souvent écrite comme un progrès linéaire jusqu’à son éclosion complète à l’époque moderne. Dans une telle perspective, des périodes antérieures comme l’Antiquité tardive apparaissent fortement comme des temps d’intolérance et de violence religieuse. Mais fait-on droit à des sociétés du passé en les étudiant à partir d’une conception moderne de la tolérance ? Ce livre montre comment, à partir de la pensée classique, l’Antiquité tardive développa des conceptions originales de la tolérance et de ses limites, qui étaient enracinées dans les idées antiques sur l’homme, la raison et la société. Il cherche ainsi à interroger notre propre conception de la tolérance qui, au lieu d’être l’aboutissement parfait d’une longue histoire, est aussi une conception spécifique et historique - avec ses propres limites.

  • Éditeur : Publications de l’École Pratique des Hautes Études
  • Collection : Les conférences de l’EPHE
  • Lieu d’édition : Paris
  • Année d’édition : 2018
  • Publication sur OpenEdition Books : 04 mars 2021
  • EAN (Édition imprimée) : 9782204126489
  • EAN électronique : 9782492861031
  • Nombre de pages : 188 p.
Michel-Yves Perrin



Open Access Journal: Cuneiform Digital Library Bulletin


[First posted in AWOL 31 August 2009.  Most recently updated 5 March 2021]

Cuneiform Digital Library Bulletin (CDLB)
ISSN: 1540-8760

The Cuneiform Digital Library Bulletin is a non-profit, refereed electronic journal for cuneiform studies. We have set ourselves the task of publishing articles of a high academic standard which also try to utilise the potential of electronic publication.
The Bulletin is supported by a number of institutions, chief among them the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin. Primary academic supervision of the Journal derives from the Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI).
No. Author Title Date File
2021:3 Abaslou, S. & Zamani, A. Newly Found Inscribed Elamite Bricks of Untaš-Napiriša in the Čahār Fasl Museum of Arak 2021/02/25 PDF
2021:2 Mohr, S. & Thompson S. M. A Selection of Tablets and Cones from Brown University 2021/02/25 PDF
2021:1 Liu Ch. Six Neo-Sumerian Texts in the Boston Public Library 2021/02/07 PDF
2020:2 Howard, J. C. Cuneiform Tablets in Collections at the University of Kansas 2020/12/31 PDF
2020:1 Parian, S. A. A New Edition of the Elamite Version of the Behistun Inscription (II) 2020/09/29 PDF
2018:2 Potts, D. T. The Carian Villages 2018/09/15 PDF
2018:1 Brunke, H. A New Geometric School Text from Cornell 2018/09/15 PDF
2017:3 Parian, S. A. A New Edition of the Elamite Version of the Behistun Inscription (I) 2017/12/22 PDF
2017:2 Zólyomi, G. The Secret Life of Lu-Ningirsu, the Judge 2017/09/30 PDF
2017:1 Alivernini, S. Nine Unpublished Texts in the Collection of the British Museum 2017/08/19 PDF
2016:2 Firth, R. Some Comments on “Drehem Tablets” in the British Museum 2016/11/24 PDF
2016:1 Brumfield, S. & Allred, L. The Cuneiform Tablet Collection of the Los Angeles Unified School District 2016/11/24 PDF
2015:6 Brunke, H. Embedded Structures: Two Mesopotamian Examples 2015/12/25 PDF
2015:5 Liu Ch. & Nielsen, J. Cuneiform Texts in the Special Collections of Knox College 2015/11/17 PDF
2015:4 Firth, R. Notes on Ur III Period Textile Tablets from Ur 2015/11/13 PDF
2015:3 Freedman, I. The Marduk Star Nēbiru 2015/11/08 PDF
2015:2 Bartash, V. On the Sumerian City UB-meki, the Alleged “Umma” 2015/11/04 PDF
2015:1 Daneshmand, P. & Abdoli, M. A New King of Susa and Anshan 2015/02/16 PDF
2014:5 Miglio. A. Ur III Tablets in the Wheaton College Archaeology Museum 2014/12/05 PDF
2014:4 Földi, Zs. & Head, R. Two Tablets from the Johns Hopkins University Collection 2014/11/30 PDF
2014:3 Reid, N. & Wagensonner, K. “My tooth aches so much” 2014/08/31 PDF
2014:2 Maidman, M. P. An Important New Early-Middle-Assyrian Letter 2014/08/03 PDF
2014:1 Andersson, J. Third Millennium Cuneiform Texts in a Swedish Private Collection 2014/05/21 PDF
2013:3 Földi, Zsombor Gleanings from the Antiquities Market: A Contribution to the Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Royal Inscriptions 2013/12/28 PDF
2013:2 Owen, D. I. Of Dogs and (Kennel)Men 2013/10/26 PDF
2013:1 Siddall, L. R. The Royal Inscriptions in the Museum of Ancient Cultures at Macquarie University, Sydney 2013/08/02 PDF
2012:3 Notizia, P. & Ludovico, A. A New Ur III Letter-Order from the Semitic Museum at Harvard University 2012/11/23 PDF
2012:2 Liu Ch. Six Ur III Tablets from the Special Collections of the University of Missouri-Columbia 2012/09/20 PDF
2012:1 Abrahami, P. & Lion, B. Remarks to W. Mayer’s Catalogue of the Nuzi Palace Texts 2012/06/16 PDF
2011:2 Brumfield, S. The Term ab2-RI-e in Ur III Sources 2011/03/09 PDF
2011:1 Abrahami, P. Masculine and Feminine Personal Determinatives before Women’s Names at Nuzi: A Gender Indicator of Social or Economic Independence? 2011/02/19 PDF
2010:1 Metcalf, Ch. Six Ur III Tablets from the Hulin Collection in Oxford 2010/04/15 PDF
2007:2 Allred, L. & Gadotti, A. The Cuneiform Collection of the Clinton Historical Society 2007/12/30 PDF
2007:1 Adams, R. McC. The Limits of State Power on the Mesopotamian Plain 2007/12/25 PDF
2006:2 Veldhuis, N. Another Early Dynastic Incantation 2006/04/23 PDF
2006:1 Monaco, S. F. N16 in the Archaic Texts 2006/01/02 PDF
2004:4 Veldhuis, N. ḪI-(še3) la2 2004/12/20 PDF
2004:3 Monaco, S. F. Revisiting Jemdet Nasr Texts: IM 55580+ 2004/09/01 PDF
2004:2 Johnson, C. Two Ur III Tablets from the Tulare County Library 2004/06/14 PDF
2004:1 Wunsch, C. An Early Achaemenid Administrative Text from Uruk 2004/04/05 PDF
2003:6 Veldhuis, N. Entering the Netherworld 2003/09/02 PDF
2003:5 Dahl, J. L. A Note on Ur III Text Duplicates 2003/06/30 PDF
2003:4 Nathan, D. L. A "New" Proto-Cuneiform Tablet 2003/03/28 PDF
2003:3 Taylor, J. J. Collations to ED Lu C and D 2003/02/25 PDF
2003:2 Fitzgerald, M. A. pisan dub-ba and the Direction of Cuneiform Script 2003/02/24 PDF
2003:1 Englund, R. K. Worcester Slaughterhouse Account 2003/01/28 PDF
2002:3 Lafont, B. The Toponym Ligriki 2002/09/11 PDF
2002:2 Englund, R. K. Notes on SET 274 2002/05/03 PDF
2002:1 Dahl, J. L. Proto-Elamite Sign Frequencies 2002/04/29 PDF