[First posted in AWOL 7 December 2012, updated, 21 March 2015]
Ancient Grains: The website of Delwen Samuel and Mark Nesbitt
Ancient Grains: The website of Delwen Samuel and Mark Nesbitt
We both work in archaeobotany - studying the archaeology of plants. Delwen Samuel’s interests include bread and beer in ancient Egypt, cereals and nutrition in the Old World, and food microscopy and other techniques of residue analysis. She is based in the Division of Nutritional Sciences at Kings College London. Mark Nesbitt’s interests are in the prehistory and history of plant use in the Near East, especially Turkey, in all aspects of wheat and other Old World cereals, and in the beginnings of farming. Although still publishing in these areas, his day job is on current-day aspects of botany at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
On our website you can find out more about our work, and the places where we have done fieldwork, and download our publications. We would be glad to receive copies or PDFs of your publications.
Publications by Delwen Samuel38. Samuel, D.J. 2013. Who made bread , and how, at Amarna?Akhetaten Sun 19(2): 2-
7.37. Samuel, D. 2010. Experimental grinding and Ancient Egyptian flour production. Pp. 456- 477 in S. Ikram & A. Dodson (eds), Beyond the Horizon: Studies in Egyptian Art, Archaeology and History in Honour of Barry J. Kemp. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.36. Tamang, J.P. & D. Samuel. 2010. Dietary cultures and antiquity of fermented foods and beverages. Pp. 1- 40 in J.P. Tamang & K. Kailasapathy (eds) Fermented foods and beverages of the world. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.35. Valamoti, S.- M., D. Samuel, M. Bayram and E. Marinova. 2008. Prehistoric cereal foods from Greece and Bulgaria: investigation of starch microstructure in experimental and archaeological charred remains. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17 (Suppl. 1): S265- S276.34. Samuel, D. 2006. “Archaeology of food”, in The Oxford Companion to Food. Second Edition. Edited by Alan Davidson, pp. 33- 34. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Details of book33. Samuel, D. 2006. "Modified starch," in Ancient starch research. Edited by R. Torrence and H. Barton, pp. 205- 216. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press. Details of book32. Gott, B., H. Barton, D. Samuel, and R. Torrence. 2006. "Biology of starch," in Ancient starch research. Edited by R. Torrence and H. Barton, pp. 35- 45. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.31. Samuel, D. 2005. Comment on: Jennings J., et al., “Drinking beer in a blissful mood”. Alcohol production, operational chains, and feasting in the ancient world. Current Anthropology 46(2): 293- 294.30. Samuel, D. 2002. Bread in archaeology. Civilisations [Brussels] 49:27- 36.29. —. 2001. "Archaeobotanical evidence and analysis," in Peuplement rural et aménagements hydroagricoles dans la moyenne vallée de l'Euphrate fin VIIe- XIXe siècle. Edited by S. Berthier, pp. 343- 481. Damascus: Institut Français d'Études Arabes de Damas.28. —. 2001. "Bread," in The Oxford Encyclopedia of ancient Egypt. Edited by D. B. Redford, pp. 196- 198. Oxford: Oxford University Press.27. —. 2001. "Beer," in The Oxford Encyclopedia of ancient Egypt. Edited by D. B. Redford, pp. 171- 172. Oxford: Oxford University Press.26. —. 2000. A new look at old bread: ancient Egyptian baking. Archaeology International 1999/2000: 28- 31.25. —. 2000. "Brewing and baking," in Ancient Egyptian materials and technology. Edited by P. T. Nicholson and I. Shaw, pp. 537- 576. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.24. —. 1999. Bread making and social interactions at the Amarna Workmen's village, Egypt. World Archaeology 31:121- 144.23. —. 1999. "Brewing and baking in ancient Egyptian art," in Food in the arts. Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery. Edited by H. Walker, pp. 173- 181. Totnes, Devon: Prospect Books.22. Nesbitt, M., and D. Samuel. 1998. Letter. Wheat domestication: archaeobotanical evidence. Science 279:1432.21. Samuel, D. 1997. Cereal food and nutrition in ancient Egypt. Nutrition 13:579- 580.20. —. 1997. Fermentation technology 3,000 years ago - the archaeology of ancient Egyptian beer. SGM Quarterly 24(1): 3- 5.19. Nesbitt, M., G. Hillman, L. Peña Chocarro, D. Samuel, and A. T. Szabó. 1996. "Checklist for recording the cultivation and uses of hulled wheats," in Hulled wheats. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Hulled Wheats. Edited by S. Padulosi, K. Hammer, and J. Heller, pp. 234- 245. Rome: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.18. Nesbitt, M., and D. Samuel. 1996. "From staple crop to extinction? The archaeology and history of the hulled wheats," in Hulled wheats. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Hulled Wheats, vol. 4, Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. Edited by S. Padulosi, K. Hammer, and J. Heller, pp. 41- 100. Rome: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.17. —. 1996. Archaeobotany in Turkey: a review of current research. Orient Express 1996:91- 96.16. Samuel, D. 1996. Investigation of ancient Egyptian baking and brewing methods by correlative microscopy. Science 273:488- 490.15. —. 1996. Archaeology of ancient Egyptian beer. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists 54:3- 12.14. —. 1996. Approaches to the archaeology of food. Petits Propos Culinaires 54:12- 21.13. Samuel, D. 1995. "Umbellifer fruits (Trachyspermum copticum (L.) Link) from the Workmen's village," in Amarna Reports VI, Occasional Publications 10. Edited by B. Kemp, pp. 372- 383. London: Egypt Exploration Society.12. Samuel, D., and P. Bolt. 1995. Rediscovering ancient Egyptian beer. Brewers' Guardian 124:26- 31.11. Kemp, B. J., D. Samuel, and R. Luff. 1994. "Food for an Egyptian city: Tell el- Amarna," in Whither environmental archaeology?, Monograph 38. Edited by R. Luff and P. Rowley- Conwy, pp. 133- 170. Oxford: Oxbow.10. —. 1994. A new look at bread and beer. Egyptian Archaeology:9- 11.9. —. 1994. An archaeological study of baking and bread in New Kingdom Egypt. Ph.D, University of Cambridge.8. —. 1993. A new look at old bread: ancient Egyptian baking. Archaeology International 3: 28- 31.7. —. 1993. Ancient Egyptian cereal processing: beyond the artistic record. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 3:276- 283.6. —. 1993. Ancient Egyptian bread and beer: an interdisciplinary approach. In: Davies, W. Vivian, and Roxi Walker, eds., Biological anthropology and the study of ancient Egypt. London: British Museum, p. 156- 164.5. —. 1993. Scanning electron microscopy and ancient Egyptian beer. BRFI Quarterly Jan. 1993: 27- 29.4. —. 1992. Ancient Egyptian baking and brewing. In S. Curto and A.- M. Donadoni- Roveri, eds. Sesto Congresso Internazionale di Egittologia. Vol. 1. Turin: Società Italiana per il Gas, pp. 120- 134.3. —. 1989. "Their staff of life: initial investigations on ancient Egyptian bread baking," in Amarna Reports V, Occasional Publications 6. Edited by B. J. Kemp, pp. 253- 290. London: Egypt Exploration Society.2. —. 1989. Archaeobotanical work at Tell Zagan and Tell Hwes, 1987 [In Helga Seeden and Jim Wilson, The AUB- IFEAD Habur village project preliminary report: rural settlement in the Syrian Gazira from prehistoric to modern times, 1- 31, plates 1- 4]. Damaszener Mitteilungen 4:19- 23.1. —. 1986. Plant remains from the northwest tell at Busra. Berytus 34:83- 96.
Publications by Mark Nesbitt
Click on title to download PDF file.In pressNesbitt, M. In press. Botany in Victorian Jamaica. In T. Barringer & W. Modest (eds), Victorian Jamaica. Duke University Press.Stungo, R., and M. Nesbitt. In press. "The botany of basketry: case studies from the Economic Botany Collection, Kew," in Basketry and Beyond: Constructing Cultures. Edited by S. Heslop. Brill.Fritz, G. J., and M. Nesbitt. In press. "Laboratory analysis and identification of plant macroremains," in Method and Theory in Paleoethnobotany. Edited by J. M. Marston, J. d. A. Guedes, and C. Warinner. University Press of Colorado.Nesbitt, M. In press. "Cereals," in The archaeology of food: an encyclopedia. Edited by M. C. Beaudry and K. Metheny. Altamira Press.Nesbitt, M. In press. "Iron age agriculture at Tille Höyük," in Tille Höyük Volume III. The Iron Age. Edited by S. Blaylock. London: British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara.72. Rico Arce, M. de L., Nesbitt, M., Rodriguez, A. & Hiscock, C. 2013 (2014). Mexican Plant Materials Housed in the Economic Botany Collection of The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Ibugana 5: 3-
38.71. Salick, J., K. Konchar, and M. Nesbitt. 2014. "Chapter 1. Biocultural collections: needs and goals," pp. 1- 13 in Curating biocultural collections: a handbook. Edited by J. Salick, K. Konchar, and M. Nesbitt. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.70. Dierig, D., H. Blackburn, D. Ellis, and M. Nesbitt. 2014. "Chapter 8. Curating seeds and other genetic resources for ethnobiology," pp. 107- 25 in Curating biocultural collections: a handbook. Edited by J. Salick, K. Konchar, and M. Nesbitt. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.69. Cornish, C., and M. Nesbitt. 2014. "Chapter 20. Historical perspectives on western ethnobotanical collections," pp. 271- 93 in Curating biocultural collections: a handbook. Edited by J. Salick, K. Konchar, and M. Nesbitt. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.68. Nesbitt, M. 2014. "Chapter 22. Use of herbarium specimens in ethnobotany," pp. 313- 28 in Curating biocultural collections: a handbook. Edited by J. Salick, K. Konchar, and M. Nesbitt. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.67. Salick, J., K. Konchar, and M. Nesbitt. 2014. Curating biocultural collections: a handbook. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 406pp. Now printed, shipping mid- March 2014.
Kew Books (Europe) -
Chicago University Press (North America) - Amazon UK - Amazon USA66. Cornish, C., P. Gasson, and M. Nesbitt. 2014. The wood collection (xylarium) of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. IAWA Journal 35: 85- 10465. Nesbitt, M. 2013. Indian dyes and textiles at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. MARG: a Magazine of the Arts 65 (2), 100- 105.64. PR Crane, T Nagata, J Murata, T Ohi- Toma, A DuVal, M Nesbitt, C Jarvis. 2013. Ginkgo biloba: Connections with people and art across a thousand years. Curtis’s Botanical Magazine 30: 239–260.63. Brennan, E., Harris, L.- A.; Nesbitt, M. 2013. Jamaican Lace- Bark: Its History and Uncertain Future. Textile History 44: 235–253.62. Serrano, A. F., Sousa, M. M., Hallett, J., Simmonds, M. S., Nesbitt, M., & Lopes, J. 2013. Identification of Dactylopius cochineal species with high- performance liquid chromatography and multivariate data analysis. Analyst 138: 6081–6090.61. Cornish, C., P. Gasson, and M. Nesbitt. 2013. The wood collections at Kew: current status and activity (Part II). World of Wood 66(4):14- 15.60. Nagata, T., A. DuVal, H. W. Lack, G. Loudon, M. Nesbitt, M. Schmull, and P. R. Crane. 2013. An unusual xylotheque with plant illustrations from early Meiji Japan. Economic Botany 67: 87- 97.59. Nesbitt, M. 2013. Inspiring artefacts Pp. 22- 24 in David Nash: a natural gallery. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.58. Cornish, C., P. Gasson, and M. Nesbitt. 2013. The wood collections at Kew: from toys to totem poles (Part I). World of Wood 66(3):14- 16.57. D Goyder, P Griggs, M Nesbitt, L Parker, K Ross- Jones. 2012. Sir Joseph Hooker's collections at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Curtis's Botanical Magazine 29: 66- 85.56. G Willcox, M Nesbitt, F Bittmann. 2012. From collecting to cultivation: transitions to a production economy in the Near East. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 21: 81- 83.Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2011- . Economic Botany Collection - online database.55. Brennan, E. and M. Nesbitt. 2010/11. Is Jamaican lace- bark (Lagetta lagetto) a sustainable material?Text: for the Study of Textile Art, Design and History 38: 17- 23.54. Nesbitt, M., McBurney, R.P.H., Broin, M., Beentje, H.J. 2010. Linking biodiversity, food and nutrition: The importance of plant identification and nomenclature.Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 23: 486–498 doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2009.03.00153. Nesbitt, M., Simpson, S. J. and Svanberg, I. (2010) History of rice in Western and Central Asia. In S. D. Sharma (ed.) Rice: origin, antiquity and history, 308- 340, 535- 541. Enfield, NH, Science Publishers. Book details: Science Publishers (USA).Nesbitt, M. 2010. Puzzling panels. Kew Magazine Spring 2010: 54- 55.52. Nesbitt, M., R. Prosser and I. Williams. 2010. Rice- paper plant - Tetrapanax papyrifer: the Gauze of the Gods and its products. Curtis’s Botanical Magazine 27(1): 71- 92.Nesbitt, M. 2009. The Economic Botany Collection. In Hunter Gatherer, by Jane Edden [Artist’s exhibition catalogue], pp. 6- 8. London: Flowers. Details of exhibition.51. Mason, S. and M. Nesbitt. 2009. “Acorns as food in southeast Turkey: implications for past subsistence in Southwest Asia,” in From foragers to farmers: papers in honour of Gordon C. Hillman. Edited by A.S. Fairbairn and E. Weiss, pp. 71- 85. Oxford: Oxbow Books. To buy book, visit the Oxbow website.50. Evers, A., and M. Nesbitt. 2006. "Cereals," in The encyclopedia of seeds: science, technology and uses. Edited by M. Black, J. D. Bewley, and P. Halmer, pp. 65- 70. Wallingford: CABI. Details of book49. Nesbitt, M. 2006. "Archaeobotany," in The encyclopedia of seeds: science, technology and uses. Edited by M. Black, J. D. Bewley, and P. Halmer, pp. 20- 22. Wallingford: CABI.48. Nesbitt, M. 2006. "Ethnobotany," in The encyclopedia of seeds: science, technology and uses. Edited by M. Black, J. D. Bewley, and P. Halmer, pp. 227- 229. Wallingford: CABI.47. M. Savard, M. Nesbitt, M.K. Jones. 2006. The role of wild grasses in subsistence and sedentism: new evidence from the northern Fertile Crescent. World Archaeology 38(2): 179- 196.46. Harcup, C. and M. Nesbitt. 2006. Attaining the Holy Grail: How to encourage wider engagement with museum collections through participation in new media projects. Museums and the Web Conference. Online publication45. Nesbitt, M. 2006. Identification guide for Near Eastern grass seeds. London: Institute of Archaeology, University College London, 129pp. ISBN 0- 905853- 41- 5.44. Nesbitt, M. 2005. "Grains," in The cultural history of plants. Edited by G. Prance and M. Nesbitt, pp. 45- 60. New York: Routledge.42. Nesbitt, M. 2004. Can we identify a centre, a region, or a supra- region for Near Eastern plant domestication?Neo- Lithics 2004:38- 40.41. Savard, M., M. Nesbitt, and R. Gale. 2003. Archaeobotanical evidence for Neolithic diet and subsistence at M'lefaat (Iraq). Paléorient 29:93- 106.40. Riehl, S., and M. Nesbitt. 2003. "Crops and cultivation in the Iron Age Near East: change or continuity?," in From Bronze to Iron Ages in Anatolia and its Neighbouring Regions. Edited by B. Fischer, H. Genz, É. Jean, and K. Köroglu, pp. 301- 314. Istanbul: Ege Yayinlari.39. Powell, M. A., and M. Nesbitt. 2003. "Obst und Gemüse (Fruits and vegetables)," in Reallexikon der Assyriologie, vol. 10(1/2). Edited by G. Frantz- Szabó, pp. 26- 30. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.38. Mori, N., T. Ishii, T. Ishido, S. Hirosawa, H. Watatani, T. Kawahara, M. Nesbitt, G. Belay, S. Takumi, Y. Ogihara, and C. Nakamura. 2003. Origin of domesticated emmer and common wheat inferred from chloroplast DNA fingerprinting. In 10th International Wheat Genetics Symposium, vol. 5, pp. 25- 28. Rome: Istituto Sperimentale Cerealicoltura.37. Nesbitt, M., S. Colledge, and M. A. Murray. 2003. Organisation and management of seed reference collections. Environmental Archaeology 8:77- 84.36. Martinoli, D., and M. Nesbitt. 2003. Plant stores at Pottery Neolithic Höyücek, southwest Turkey. Anatolian Studies 53:17- 32.35. Edwards, H. G. M., L. F. C. de Oliveira, and M. Nesbitt. 2003. Fourier- transform Raman characterization of brazilwood trees and substitutes. The Analyst 128:82- 87.34. Nesbitt, M. 2002. "When and where did domesticated cereals first occur in southwest Asia?," in The dawn of farming in the Near East. Edited by R. Cappers and S. Bottema, pp. 113- 132. Berlin: Ex Oriente.33. Cope, T., and M. Nesbitt. 2002. Lygeum spartum. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 19:35- 39.32. de Oliveira, L. F. C., H. G. M. Edwards, E. S. Velozo, and M. Nesbitt. 2002. Vibrational spectroscopic study of brazilin and brazilein, the main constituents of brazilwood from Brazil. Vibrational Spectroscopy 28:243- 249.31.—. 2001. "Wheat evolution: integrating archaeological and biological evidence," in Wheat taxonomy: the legacy of John Percival, vol. 3, Linnean, Special Issue. Edited by P. D. S. Caligari and P. E. Brandham, pp. 37- 59. London: Linnean Society.See also Gordon Hillman’s introduction.30. Nesbitt, M., and R. Hajioff. 2001. Notes and queries: argan oil. Petits Propos Culinaires 67:121- 124.29.Nesbitt, M., and J. Postgate. 2001. "Nuss und Verwandtes (nuts)," in Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie 9(7/8). Edited by G. Frant- Szabó, pp. 633- 635. Berlin: de Gruyter.Nesbitt, M. 2000. "Plants and people in ancient Anatolia," in Across the Anatolian plateau: readings in the archaeology of ancient Turkey, vol. 57, Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research. Edited by D. C. Hopkins, pp. 5- 18. Boston, MA: American Schools of Oriental Research. See 15.28. Nesbitt, M., and S. O'Hara. 2000. "Irrigation agriculture in Central Asia: a long- term perspective from Turkmenistan," in The archaeology of drylands: living at the margin. Edited by G. Barker and D. Gilbertson, pp. 103- 122. London: Routledge.27. Nesbitt, M. 1998. Preliminary report on the plant remains from M'lefaat. Cahiers de l'Euphrate 8:232- 233, 272.26.—. 1998. Where was einkorn wheat domesticated? Trends in Plant Science 3:82- 83.25. Nesbitt, M., and D. Samuel. 1998. Letter. Wheat domestication: archaeobotanical evidence. Science 279:1432.24. Rosenberg, M., M. Nesbitt, R. W. Redding, and B. L. Peasnall. 1998. Hallan Çemi, pig husbandry, and post- Pleistocene adaptations along the Taurus- Zagros arc (Turkey). Paléorient 24:25- 41.23. Nesbitt, M. 1997. Archaeobotanical identification of Near Eastern grass caryopses. Ph.D, University College London.22. Nesbitt, M., and J. Goddard. 1997. Why draw seeds? Illustrating archaeobotany. Graphic Archaeology 1997:13- 21.21. Hillman, G. C., S. Mason, D. de Moulins, and M. Nesbitt. 1996 for 1995. Identification of archaeological remains of wheat: the 1992 London workshop. Circaea 12:195- 209.20. Nesbitt, M. 1996. "Chalcolithic crops from Kuruçay Höyük: an interim report," in Kuruçay Höyük II. Edited by R. Duru, pp. 89- 93, 134- 137. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu.19.—. 1996. "Agriculture," in The Oxford companion to archaeology. Edited by B. M. Fagan, pp. 19- 21. New York: Oxford University Press.18. Nesbitt, M., G. Hillman, L. Peña Chocarro, D. Samuel, and A. T. Szabó. 1996. "Checklist for recording the cultivation and uses of hulled wheats," in Hulled wheats. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Hulled Wheats. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops 4. Edited by S. Padulosi, K. Hammer, and J. Heller, pp. 234- 245. Rome: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. Or download entire Hulled Wheats book from IPGRI17. Nesbitt, M., and D. Samuel. 1996. "From staple crop to extinction? The archaeology and history of the hulled wheats," in Hulled wheats. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Hulled Wheats. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops 4. Edited by S. Padulosi, K. Hammer, and J. Heller, pp. 41- 100. Rome: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.16.—. 1996. Archaeobotany in Turkey: a review of current research. Orient Express 1996:91- 96.15. Nesbitt, M. 1995. Plants and people in ancient Anatolia. Biblical Archaeologist 58:68- 81.14.—. 1995. Clues to agricultural origins in the northern fertile crescent. Diversity 11:142- 143.13.—. 1995. "4. The search for plant remains," in Qermez Dere, Tell Afar: interim report no. 3, vol. 14, Project Paper. Edited by T. Watkins, pp. 9- 11, 40- 45. Edinburgh: Department of Archaeology, University of Edinburgh.12.—. 1995. "Recovery of archaeological plant remains at Kaman- Kalehöyük," in Essays on ancient Anatolia and its surrounding civilizations, vol. 8, Bulletin of the Middle East Culture Centre in Japan. Edited by T. Mikasa, pp. 115- 130. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.—. 1995. Anadolu'da Arkeobotani [Translation of article in Biblical Archaeologist 58: 68- 81 (1995)]. Bilim ve Teknik 336:26- 29. See 15.11. Rosenberg, M., M. Nesbitt, R. W. Redding, and T. F. Strasser. 1995. Hallan Çemi Tepesi: some preliminary observations concerning early Neolithic subsistence behaviors in eastern Anatolia. Anatolica 21:1- 12.10. Nesbitt, M. 1994. Archaeobotanical research in the Merv Oasis [In G. Herrmann et al, The International Merv Project. Preliminary report on the second season (1993), 53- 75]. Iran 32:71- 73.9.—. 1993. "Ancient crop husbandry at Kaman- Kalehöyük: 1991 archaeobotanical report," in Essays on Anatolian Archaeology, vol. 7, Bulletin of the Middle Eastern Culture Center in Japan. Edited by T. Mikasa, pp. 75- 97. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.8.—. 1993. Archaeobotanical evidence for early Dilmun diet at Saar, Bahrain. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 4:20- 47.7.—. 1993. "The archaeobotany of Turkey: a review," in OPTIMA. Proceedings of the fifth meeting. Edited by H. Demeriz and N. Özhatay, pp. 329- 350.Istanbul: Istanbul Üniversitesi, Fen Fakültesi. Now out- of- date.6.—. 1993. Archaeobotanical remains [In G. Herrmann et al, The International Merv Project, preliminary report on the first season (1992), 39- 62]. Iran 31:56- 58, plate XVc,d.5.—. 1992. "VIII. A preliminary note on the charred plant remains," in Nemrik 9. Pre- pottery Neolithic site in Iraq. Volume 2: House No 1/ 1A/ 1B. Edited by S. K. Kozlowski, pp. 127. Warsaw: University of Warsaw.4. Watkins, T., A. Betts, K. Dobney, and M. Nesbitt. 1991. Qermez Dere, Tel Afar: interim report no 2. Vol. 13. Project Paper. Edinburgh: Department of Archaeology, University of Edinburgh.3. Nesbitt, M. 1990. Seed reference collections and archaeobotany. Circaea 8:21- 39. Superseded by 37.2. Nesbitt, M., and J. Greig. 1989. A bibliography for the archaeobotanical identification of seeds from Europe and the Near East. Circaea 7:11- 30.1. Nesbitt, M., and G. D. Summers. 1988. Some recent discoveries of millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) at excavations in Turkey and Iran. Anatolian Studies 38:85- 97.