Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis
Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis (The Stockholm papyrus) is a codex consisting of 15 leaves containing 154 recipes for the manufacture of dyes and colors used in fashioning artificial stones. Written in Greek around AD 300, it is one of the earliest complete treatises of its kind and an important vehicle for the transmission of practical information from the Alexandrian (Old Egyptian) world to Byzantium and Western Europe. The manuscript appears to have been written by the same scribe as a similar codex in the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in Leiden, also containing different recipes for the manufacture of materials. Both texts clearly include the recipes of practitioners. Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis was presented to the Swedish Royal Academy of Antiquities in 1832 by the consul general of Sweden and Norway at Alexandria. It most likely had been discovered shortly before that date, possibly at Thebes.