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Online Etymological Dictionary of Akkadian

Etymological Dictionary of Akkadian

Supplement to the Akkadian Dictionaries

Akkadian (Babylonian-Assyrian), a Semitic language written in the cuneiform script, was the native language of Babylonia and Assyria, the two main areas of Ancient Mesopotamia. It spread all over the Ancient Near East and was used, at least in written form and during certain periods, also from Elam in southwest Iran to Anatolia Syria, Palestine and even Egypt in the west. Written from ca. 2600 BC to the 1st century AD, Akkadian is one of the best attested languages of antiquity: the size of the Akkadian text corpus approximately corresponds to the size of the corpus of ancient Latin. 

The Akkadian lexicon is actually accessible through two large dictionaries, W. von Sodens Akkadisches Handwörterbuch (1958–1981, 3 volumes) and The Assyrian Dictionary of the University of Chicago (1956–2010, 20 volumes). Both dictionaries present Akkadian words with their meaning in context and a large number of references. As a huge reservoir for the history of Near Eastern languages and cultures, however, the Akkadian lexicon is still almost unexploited. The Etymological Dictionary of Akkadian, a joint project of the Seminar für Sprachen und Kulturen des Vorderen Orients (university of Jena) and the Altorientalisches Institut (Universität Leipzig), aims to analyse the Akkadian lexicon in the context of the Semitic language family and as the source, receptor and transmitter of loanwords and foreign words of Semitic and non-Semitic origin, part of which still survive in modern languages. 

The Etymological Dictionary of Akkadian is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft as a long-term project. The project leaders are Leonid Kogan (Moscow), Manfred Krebernik (Jena) and Michael P. Streck (Leipzig). The project started on July 1st, 2013. 

One module of the project is to create a Supplement to the Akkadian dictionaries mentioned above. This is the task of the Leipzig team (Michael P. Streck, Nadezda Rudik). The supplement is meant to provide new references for Akkadian words in the many texts published after the end of the Akkadisches Handwörterbuch and The Assyrian Dictionary of the University of Chicago as well as new secondary literature and corrections. The supplement is published online below. 

How to use the Supplement to the Akkadian Dictionaries
Current Status of Work

Supplement to the Akkadian Dictionaries:
A    B    D    E    G        I    K     L    M       P    Q    R    S        Š          U    W    Y    Z


The Supplement to the Akkadian Dictionaries is a work in progress. At the moment we concentrate on the letters B, P, and D, T and
Ṭ, but material on the other letters can also be found. In the following the scope of publications included is updated regularly.

Selected words of all letters from the following texts are included and discussed:

ORA 7, 205ff.:
RS 25.460, Hymn to Marduk from Ugarit
SAA 9:
Neo-Assyrian prophecies

For the letters B, P, D, T and Ṭ words from the texts in the following publications are included and discussed:

Late OB texts from the sealand dynasty
OB texts from Tuttul

For the letters B and P, words culled from the indices of the following publications are included and discussed:

ARM 26/1, 26/2, 27, 28:
OB letters from Mari
LB documents
Ur III documents from Garšana
QS 3:
MB letters and documents from Qatna
Shemshara 1:
OB letters from Tell Shemshara

For all letters full indices of the following publications are included:

AfO Bh. 32:
SB inscriptions of Nebuchadnezzar from Wādī Brīsa
BATSH 4/1:
MA letters from Dūr-Katlimmu

The following secondary literature is included systematically:

Reviews of the AHw. and the CAD for the letters B and P, quoted verbatim
Reviews of the AHw. and the CAD for the letters D, T and Ṭ, quoted verbatim
Arkhipov 2012 (ARM 32) for the letters B, P, D, T, and Ṭ
Beaulieu 2003 (Pantheon of Uruk) for the letters B, P, D, T and Ṭ
McEwan 1988 (Babylonia in the Hellenistic Period, Klio 70, 412-421): Greek loanwords
Pentiuc 2011 (West Semitic Loan Words in MB texts from Emar) for the letters B, P, D, T and Ṭ

 Last update: January 31, 2014
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