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Open Access Journal: PalArch's Journal of Archaeology of Egypt / Egyptology

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 [First posted in AWOL 26 December 2013, updated 25 January 2021]

PalArch's Journal of Archaeology of Egypt / Egyptology
ISSN 1567-214X

As noted in the announcement from the PalArch Foundation content from this journal no linger appears at the original site, and has been archives

The PalArch Foundation publishes three journals: PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology (PJAEE; ISSN 1567-214X), PalArch’s Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology (PJVP; ISSN 1567-2158) and PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Northwest Europe (PJANE; ISSN 1573-3939). These are so-called ‘open access’, which means that the publiciations are freely availabe and can be downloaded by everyone (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_access_(publishing)). Note that the downloaded PDF publications are for personal use only: distribution is not permitted. Notifying third parties should be done by reference to the Foundation’s website www.PalArch.nl

For detailed information on the journals, see the appropriate pages. The proceedings (ISSN 1567-2166; currently only related to Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology) are an irregularly appearing publication. The Newsletter (ISSN 1872-4582) ceased to exist with the new website: items and news are published online in the News section.

Author, Year, Issue, Page Nos., Title, Abstract

Andrews, C.A.R. 2004: 1, 2: 17-20. An unusual inscribed amulet.

Amulets in the shape of an obelisk are surprisingly rare; one which is inscribed with the names and titles of its owner may well be unique. Even the titles themselves, firmly dated by the amulet’s form, are otherwise unknown.

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Bearman, G. & W.A. Christens-Barry. 2009: 6, 7: 1-20. Spectral imaging of ostraca.                 

By analogy with ancient texts, infrared imaging of ostraca has long been employed to help improve readings. We report on extensive spectral imaging of ostraca over the visible and near infrared. Spectral imaging acquires the complete spectrum for each pixel in an image; the data can be used with an extensive set of software tools that were developed originally for satellite and scientifi c imaging. In this case, the spectral data helps explain why infrared imaging works to improve text legibility (and why not in some cases). A better understanding of the underlying imaging mechanism points the way for inexpensive methods for taking data either in the field or at museums.

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Bearman, G., M.S. Anderson & K. Aitchison. 2011: 8, 2: 1-7. New imaging methods to improve text legibility of ostraca.                 

We report on experiments on three new methods to improve text contrast for carbon ink ostraca. These are (1) Raman imaging, (2) Micro-focus XRF scanning and (3) exogenous contrast agents either to enhance the X-ray signal or create an optical fl uorescence signal. We tested all three methods with modern ‘stunt’ ostraca, made using a variety of carbonbased inks. In each imaging modality, the inks are clearly differentiated from the clay background. The exogenous contrast enhancement, in particular, suggests a variety of approaches to improving text legibility.

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Brichieri-Colombi, S.  2015: 12, 1: 1-16. Engineering a feasible ramp for the Great Pyramid of Giza.            

Although it is widely believed by archaeologists that the Great Pyramid was built using sleds hauled up ramps, no economically feasible ramp configuration has yet been found which would have permitted the placement of the 44 granite beams weighing up to 75 t and the 2.3 Mm3 of limestone blocks of the pyramid, in a period corresponding to the 27 year reign of Pharaoh Khufu. This paper focuses on engineering considerations: it proposes a simple configuration which is structurally sound and consistent with the archaeological evidence and the principles of ergonomics, mechanics and materials engineering, with a volume of only 6% of that of the pyramid. It demonstrates how the blocks, beams, supporting capstones and pyramidion could have been placed using only the tools found at Giza which date from the 4th Dynasty or earlier, within the constraints imposed by the topography of the Giza Massif.

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Brichieri-Colombi, S. 2019: 16, 1: 1-21. The ramp at Hatnub quarry: No solution for pyramids.     

Certain features of the ramp first uncovered by the IFAO/University of Liverpool team in 2015 at the Old Kingdom alabaster quarry at Hatnub have been heralded as a model for ramps used in construction of theGreat Pyramid of Giza. These features include a steep slope of up 20% (11⁰), inclined stairways on both sidesand post holes at regular intervals. The archaeologists hypothesize that these features allowed the haul team to be split into two groups, one hauling upslope with a direct pull, and the other downslope on ropes passed around the posts “acting as pulleys”, thus enabling a steep slope to be used. This paper is based on the physics of various arrangements and demonstrates that the hypothesis is untenable as the posts would have acted asbollards and provided no mechanical advantage. The posts were necessary because of the problems large haul teams would have had negotiating the curvature of the ramp. Interesting as the features at Hatnub are, they are unnecessary and undesirable on the ramps that would have been required for pyramid construction, and the hypothesis should be rejected.

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Brichieri-Colombi, S. 2020. 17, 3: 1-20 A spurred spiral ramp for the Great Pyramid of Giza.          

An easier and equally feasible configuration of spiral ramps for the construction of the Great Pyramid of Giza (Brichieri-Colombi, 2015), would be for a spiral ramp extended as a spur tangential to the pyramid rather than orthogonal to it. The general arrangement, which could have been used for many other large pyramids as well, is similar to that proposed by Lehner (1985: 129-132), but without the mass of temporary works that Lehner envisaged. It avoids the need to create a trench over the body of the pyramid during construction, as proposed by Arnold (1991: 98), while respecting the constraints imposed by the available tools, workforce capabilities and design features of the pyramid. Finding the ideal configuration would not have been easy for the ancient builders, but this paper demonstrates how they could have done so with models. It also addresses the key construction issues associated with spiral ramps. An analysis of the construction effort required demonstrates that a ramp slope of 1:6 (9.5⁰) would have minimised the work involved. This finding suggests that pyramid construction hypotheses should be evaluated in terms of both feasibility and optimality to assess which are the most likely to have been adopted by ancient Egyptians.

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Claus, B. 2005: 3, 1: 1-121. Introduction bibliographique à l’Égyptologie            

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Cockcroft, R. & S. Symons. 2013: 10, 3: 1-10. Diagonal star tables on coffins A1C and S2Hil: A new triangle decan and a reversed table.       

We present updates for two ancient Egyptian diagonal star tables on coffins A1C and S2Hil. A1C reveals a new triangle decan, HAt sAbw, which brings the total number of triangle decans to 13 and the total number of unique triangle decans to 12 (because of the duplication of nTr DA pt). We discuss its relevance, why it has likely remained hidden for so long, and why it may have been lost on other star tables. S2Hil is re-examined with new photographs provided by the Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum, Hildesheim. We find several striking features of this table that make it unique among the current collection, and also present more information of this table not previously identified.

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Cooney, K.M. & J. Tyrrell. 2005: 4, 1: 1-14. Scarabs in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Part I. Distributed propaganda or intimate protection?                  

This case study of 79 unprovenanced scarabs and scaraboid amulets in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art addresses glyptics, miniaturisation, distribution, and reception. Meaning and function can only be examined by broadening our investigatory criteria outside of the norm (typological and categorical) to included semiotic, anthropological and psychological factors, allowing an understanding of a scarab as a powerful social tool, not only tied to personal religious beliefs, but also to state propaganda, as well as state cultic powers, i.e., the king and his cosmic, ritualistic role in ancient Egyptian cosmology and society. The multiple grammatical and symbolic meanings of the abstractions found on scarab bases seem purposely intended to fulfil multiple functions at one and the same time.

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Cooney, K.M. & J. Tyrrell. 2005: 4, 2: 15-98. Scarabs in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Part II. Catalogue. Online version.

This catalogue publishes 79 scarabs, scaraboids, and heart scarabs now in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA). Each entry includes information on dating, dimensions, materials, description, and inscriptions, if any. Also included is a list of parallels of other scarabs or scaraboids with similar base decoration. The catalogue is divided according to the genre of the scarabs’ base decoration, of which there are seven: 1) King’s names, epithets, and images, 2) Apotropaic and divine iconography, 3) Personal titles and names, 4) Near Eastern motifs and adaptation, 5) Geometric and stylised patterns, 6) Heart Scarabs, and 7) Uninscribed scarabs.

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Creasman, P.P., H. Touchane, C.H. Baisan, H. Bassir, R. Caroli, N. Doyle, H. Herrick, M.A. Koutkat & R. Touchan. 2017: 14, 3: 1-35. An illustrated glossary of Arabic-English dendrochronology terms and names.           

This illustrated glossary presents a selection of essential terms and people in the study of dendrochronology, in Arabic and English. It is intended to make accessible an array of related literature to Arabic readers, in hopes that the application of tree-ring research will be more widely applied to archaeological studies, especially in Egypt.

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Fradley, M. & S. Hardouin. 2019: 16, 2: 1-21. Remote sensing of endangered archaeology on Gebel Ataqah, Egypt.       

This paper reports on a recent survey of a range of archaeological sites on and around Gebel Ataqah, a mountain area to the west of Suez. These sites were identified through the analysis of publicly available satellite imagery, principally Google Earth (GE), as part of the Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa (EAMENA) project, supplemented by historical references to the area and notes published by earlier travellers. The absence of existing archaeological data is due to a military presence in this area, from at least the 1950s, limiting access and exploration. The results of this survey show high levels of archaeological potential across large parts of Gebel Ataqah that require more detailed analysis on the ground, in an important, yet often underexplored, region. A series of major current and future threats to these archaeological sites are also identified which, alongside the presented survey data, will inform any future heritage management schemes.

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Gosling, J., P. Manti & P.T. Nicholson. 2004: 2, 1: 1-12. Discovery and conservation of a hoard of votive bronzes from the Sacred Animal Necropolis at North Saqqara.    

This paper outlines the discovery of a hoard of votive bronzes from the Sacred Animal Necropolis at North Saqqara, and gives the background to the original work at the site by Professor W.B. Emery. This collection of material gives an interesting insight into the range of objects offered at the shrines of the Sacred Animal Necropolis, and gives us a glimpse of just how popular these cults were. Also, the methods used in the conservation of these bronzes are presented.

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Grajetzki, W. 2020: 17, 2: 1-29. The coffin of Nywty (Nuti), Saqqara.              

The publication of a coffin found in 1982 by the excavations under the direction of the late Professor Peter Munro at Saqqara. e coffin dates to the 6th Dynasty and shows some rare features such as an offering list on the outside and the omission of gods’ names in the texts.

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Haan, H.J. 2009: 6, 2: 1-22. Building the Great Pyramid by Levering. A Mathematical Model.                 

A review of the extensive literature on the building of the Egyptian pyramids reveals that so far this problem has not been treated in a systematic, quantitative way. The present study aims at filling this gap by means of an integrated mathematical model, taking into account the interaction between various activities involved, such as quarrying, transportation and building. I focus my attention on the largest pyramid, the one built by Khufu. The model simulates an efficient project co-ordination by balancing supply and demand of the building material, with all activities related to the growth of the pyramid and assuming a constant total workforce. This makes it possible to determine the effect of different building methods and of the productivity of the workers on the workforce required for the various tasks. In this paper only one building method has been considered, namely levering. Calculations have been carried out for two sets of input data, indicated as base case and maximum case. Assuming a project duration of 20 years with 2624 working hours per year, the workforce for this building method is estimated to range from 4 000 to 10 000 men directly involved in the building of the pyramid and the supply of the necessary material.

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Harbort, J., Ö. Gürvit, L.A. Beck & T. Pommerening. 2008: 1, 1: 18. Extraordinary dental findings in an Egyptian mummy skull by means of Computed Tomography            

An ancient Egyptian mummy skull from the Zoological Collection Marburg, Germany, was examined using computer assisted tomography. In this skull (referred to as Mummy skull no. 24) of a man who lived circa 50 BC we found three of his teeth in the cranial cavity. They had been retained after their loss caused by periodontal disease, and were inserted into the cranial cavity via a trans-sphenoidal hole, probably during the process of mummification. In this article we describe the reasons for the loss of these three teeth and consider possible motivations for this extraordinary conservation. We believe this is the first time such a procedure has been reported. It is discussed in an historical-religious context, emphasizing the mythological background. Furthermore, the medico-pharmaceutical methods to cure periodontal disease are described with reference to the ancient Egyptian medical papyrus Ebers – in the case of Mummy skull no. 24 one of the causes of loss of teeth.

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Harrell, J.A. 2004: 1, 1: 1-16. Petrographic investigation of Coptic limestone sculptures and reliefs in the Brooklyn Museum of Art.

The so-called ‘Coptic’ limestone sculptures and reliefs of the Sheikh Ibada group were originally thought to date from Egypt’s Late Roman and Early Byzantine periods, but are now considered to be modern forgeries by most scholars. This conclusion is based on their anomalous stylistic characteristics. The limestone from which these objects are carved has not been previously studied, however. Such a study was undertaken for 31 objects in the Brooklyn Museum of Art’s Coptic collection. The objective was to locate the geographic source(s) of the limestone varieties through identification of the geologic formation(s) that supplied them. Most of the limestone almost certainly comes from Egypt’s Mokattam Formation, which is widely distributed within and beyond the Nile Valley from Cairo in the north to Maghagha 160 km to the south. The limestone for four of the objects could have come from other formations further south but may also originate from the Mokattam. It is within the part of Egypt where Mokattam outcrops occur that most of the demonstrably genuine Coptic limestone sculptures and reliefs have been excavated. The modern forgers who copied these ancient works used the same limestone and probably had their workshops within the Mokattam region.

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Harrell, J.A. 2006: 4, 1: 1-12. Archaeological geology of Wadi Sikait.

Emerald, a green transparent variety of beryl, was one of the most highly prized gemstones in antiquity. The earliest known emerald mine is located in the valley of Wadi Sikait in Egypt’s southern Eastern Desert, where mining probably began toward the end of the Ptolemaic period in the 1st century BC. Most of the mining activity, however, dates to the Early and Late Roman periods (1st to mid–2nd centuries and 4th to early 6th centuries AD, respectively) with much reduced activity during the Middle Roman period (late 2nd to 3rd centuries AD). The Romans referred to emerald as smaragdus and named the Sikait region Mons Smaragdus or Emerald Mountain. An archaeological geology survey of Wadi Sikait was undertaken for the purpose of mapping the distribution of ancient mine workings, deducing the ancient mining methods, and describing the geologic occurrence of emerald. It was found that emerald and other green beryls occur within the contact zone between phlogopite schist and intrusive quartz and pegmatite veins. The workings, which were excavated in the softer phlogopite schist with flat–edged chisels and pointed picks, are mostly shallow open–cut trenches that follow the quartz/pegmatite veins. Some workings continue as much as 100 meter underground and are still largely unexplored. Steatite and quartz mica schist also occur in Wadi Sikait and were quarried by the Romans for building stone.

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Harrell, J.A. 2017: 14, 2: 1-16. A preliminary overview of ancient Egyptian stone beads.               

Stone beads are one of the most common artifacts of ancient Egypt, but despite this they have received little attention from scholars. The first and only attempt at a comprehensive study is the late 1930’s investigation of Nai Xia, who looked at beads in all materials at what is now the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, University College London, UK. The present survey builds on the work of Xia, and offers summaries on two aspects of stone beads: first, the relative amounts of rock and mineral varieties used during each period of Egyptian history; and second, the changes in bead form, perforation and polish through time for broad categories of stone.

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Ikram, S., J. Kaiser & R. Walker. 2013: 10, 1: 1-31. The bioarchaeology of ancient Egypt. Abstracts.      

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Janssen, R. 2020: 17, 1: 1-11. The pleated dress of Nywty.                

A description of a fragment of a pleated dress, discovered in situ in 1982 by the late Peter Munro and his team in the tomb of Nywty. An evaluation of its importance for our understanding of pleated dresses in ancient Egypt.

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Krauss, R. 2009: 6, 1: 1-20. Der Berliner „Spaziergang im Garten“ – antiker Murks oder moderne Fälschung? Mit einem Exkurs über Heinrich Schäfers Ägyptenaufenthalt 1898-1901.            

The relief slab Berlin 15000, popularly known as ‘the stroll in the garden’, which depicts a royal couple in Amarna style, was acquired around 1900 in Egypt on the art market, and thus lacks an archaeological provenance. Features in favour of its authenticity include the physical proportions of the figures, the anatomically ‘correct’ depiction of their feet, and their costume in general, though not in detail. Other features suggest the relief could be a forgery – for example, the fact that the figures are not typically ‘top-heavy,’ the use of the line customarily indicating the kilt for drawing the king’s lower left leg, the absence of compositional unity in a scene purportedly of the Amarna period, and iconographically unparalleled details of the queen’s sash and cloak. These and other factors, both pro and contra authenticity, are reviewed and considered.

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Krauss, R. With a contribution by Victor Reijs. 2012: 9, 5: 1-95. Babylonian crescent observation and Ptolemaic-Roman lunar dates. 

This article considers three questions associated with Ptolemaic-Roman lunar chronology: did the temple service begin on Lunar Day 2; were lunar phases determined by observation and/or cyclically; how accurate were lunar observations? In the introduction, Babylonian and modern observations of old and new crescents are analyzed to obtain empirical visibility lines applicable to Egyptian lunar observations.

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Magli, G. 2010: 7, 5: 1-9. Archaeoastronomy and archaeo-topography as tools in the search for a missing Egyptian pyramid.                     

Among the royal pyramids of the 6th Egyptian Dynasty, that of the second king, Userkare, is missing. This Pharaoh, however, ruled long enough – two to four years – to plan his pyramid on the ground and have the workers excavate the substructure. Userkare’s unfinished tomb might therefore be buried in the sands of the Memphite necropolis, possibly with a copy of the Pyramid Texts carved on its walls. In the present paper, methods based on archaeo-topography and archaeoastronomy have been applied with the aim of finding the possible location of the building site of this monument.

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Miatello, L. 2005: 1, 1: 1-12. The design of the Snefru pyramids at Dahshur and the Netjerikhet pyramid at Saqqara.

This investigation concerns the mathematical structure in the design of the north and south pyramids at Dahshur. The odd form of the Bent pyramid and the architectural layout of the two pyramids will be ascribed to an organic theory of the emerging solar religion, in a logical parallelism with the Great pyramid, and in the context of principals of sacred mathematics that in some aspects can be traced back to the plan of the Step pyramid at Saqqara.

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Miatello, L. 2010: 7, 6: 1-36. Examining the Grand Gallery in the pyramid of Khufu and its features.                 

The explanation of the symmetrical features on the west and east sides of the grand gallery in the pyramid of Khufu has always been an intricate puzzle for researchers. The existence of such peculiar features is generally related to the function of parking the granite plugs, but only three or four granite blocks were presumably used to plug the ascending corridor, while a much larger number of slots and niches are found in the gallery. Previous interpretations of niches, slots, cuttings and grooves are unsatisfactory, and the present investigation focuses on important, formerly neglected aspects. The analysis of numerical patterns in the design of the grand gallery provides crucial evidence, and a new interpretation of the features in the gallery is, therefore, proposed, by considering the numerous variables implied in the problem.

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Naguib, S.-A. 2007: 2, 1: 1-8. The shifting values of authenticity and fakes                

The present article discusses the shifting values of authenticity and fakes. Using a biographical approach and the notion of things’ social life it examines an Egyptianised relief which according to the author is probably the work of the ‘Master of Berlin’, Oxan Aslanian, and investigates the wider context in which the object was conceived. The period under consideration is from the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century. The article goes on to explicate that fakes of ancient Egyptian art were circulated through multiplex social networks involving antiquities dealers, fakers and academics from different cultural backgrounds. By following the trajectories of these objects we may reconstruct their environments and map the web of social networks tied to them.

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Paijmans, H. & A. Brandsen. 2010: 7, 2: 1-6. Searching in archaeological texts. Problems and solutions using an artificial intelligence approach.            

Searching in documents using full text indices is a powerful tool for retrieving relevant portions of text. However, performance is impeded by ambiguity in texts: similar words may have totally different meanings according to context. This also is true if the words are numbers, periods and place names, especially in archaeological and historical contexts. A new way of indexing texts allows for better and easier searching. This system has been developed in a collaboration between the RCE (The Dutch National Service for Cultural Heritage)1 and the University of Tilburg. With Open Boek,2 it is possible to search on chronological and geographical expressions, as well as regular keywords. In the newest version of Open Boek a number of additions to the system have been made to further improve the functionality.

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Reader, C.D. 2006: 2, 1: 1-13. Response to Vandecruys (2006). The Sphinx: dramatising data….and dating. – PalArch, series Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology 1, 1: 1–13.

In a previous paper (Vandecruys, 2006), the evidence presented by the current author for re–dating the Sphinx of Giza and a number of other structures present within the Giza necropolis has been reassessed. Following this re–assessment, Vandecruys has raised a number of objections to the current author’s thesis. The current paper provides a response to the criticism of Vandecruys and presents further arguments in support of Early Dynastic development at Giza, of which the Sphinx is considered to have formed an important element.

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Reader, C.D. 2006: 3, 2: 12-25. Further considerations on development at Giza before the 4th Dynasty.

Two previous papers produced by Vandecruys have been critical of the theories of erosion of the Sphinx by rainfall run–off, previously advanced by Reader. In a final response to Vandecruys’ theory that the extant degradation can be attributed to shallow groundwater movement, Reader explains the limitations of Vandecruys’ groundwater model and further discusses the case for development at Giza before the 4th Dynasty.

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Roode, van, S.M. 2003: 0, 0: 1-7. Observations on the ibw-tent: preliminary results                    

The preliminary results of a study on the Old Kingdom ibw-tent are presented. The physical appearance of the tent itself will be discussed as well as the function the tent might have had: it was both the entrance to the actual necropolis and the gateway to the netherworld.

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Theis, C. 2017: 14, 1: 1-25. Egyptian funerary cones from various auctions and collections.                

The article presents a list of funerary cones, which were not included in one of the last collections of the material. These objects were mainly collected from auctions, and the aim is to make these cones available for scholars.

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Tomorad, M. 2004: 3, 1: 1-6. Egyptology in Croatia.

This paper presents a short overview of the history of Egyptology in Croatia. It describes the earliest scientific approaches to Egyptology and the latest project to disclose the Egyptian artefacts in Croatia.

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Tomorad, M.  2004: 3, 2: 7-11. Croato-Aegyptica Electronica. Database of the Egyptian antiquities in Croatian museum and private collections.

In Croatia are more than 4.030 Egyptian artefacts in 20 museums and an unknown number in private collections. The basic aim of the project ‘Croato-Aegyptica Electronica’ (CAE) is to select relevant material presenting the Egyptian cultural heritage in Croatia both in institutions and private collections.

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Tomorad, M. 2005: 2, 1: 1-33. The Egyptian antiquities in Croatia.

Approximately 5000 Egyptian artifacts (dated until the Arab conquest in 642 AD) are housed in Croatia. Most of these can be found in museums but various objects are housed in private collections. This presents these collections and shortly discusses them, giving information on for instance the historical backgrounds as well as the scientific value.

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Vandecruys, G. 2006: 1, 1: 1-13. The Sphinx: dramatising data … and dating.

Geology and archaeology, carefully entwined, form the basis for deciding on a date of construction for the Great Sphinx at Giza. Over a decade after Robert Schoch’s controversial Pre–Dynastic proposal, Colin Reader takes up the debate again in the new millennium, and suggests a less extreme re–dating to the Early–Dynastic era. In tracing the data that forms the backbone for the ‘older Sphinx’ theories, I have found that a model of groundwater seepage leading to increased salt weathering rates explains the currently visible erosion morphology without requiring a change in the accepted chronology. On the archaeological side, several surrounding Giza monuments place an important limit on the possibility for an older Sphinx.

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Vandecruys, G. 2006: 3, 1: 1-11. Response to Reader (2006): more geological and archaeological data on the Sphinx discussion.

In a review of the critiques raised by Vandecruys (2006), Reader (2006) clarifies his position on the geological and archaeological situation of the Sphinx, and adds extra data to support his case. The current paper will outline exactly how and why Reader’s response fails to attribute the Sphinx to the Early Dynastic era, and why a 4th Dynasty dating is still most likely when checked against the available evidence.

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Veldmeijer, A.J. 2007: 1, 1: 1-36. Preliminary report on the leatherwork from Roman Berenike, Egyptian Red Sea Coast (1994–2000).

The excavations at Berenike during the 1994–2000 season yielded various finds of skin and leather. Leatherwork is one of the neglected fields in the study of ancient Egypt and it is therefore that this paper presents the leatherwork from this important site, even though the material has not been studied in as much detail as would be necessary. All discussed objects were excavated from early Roman rubbish layers.

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Veldmeijer, A.J.  2009: 6, 4: 1-21. Studies of Ancient Egyptian Footwear. Technological Aspects.Part XV. Leather Curled-Toe Ankle Shoes. 

In ancient Egypt sandals were a common commodity despite the fact that people must have been used to walking on bare feet. Shoes were less common though several types are known from the archaeological record. Despite the many examples of footwear, however, detailed studies are lacking. The present paper presents the closed shoes ‘curled-toe ankle shoes’, that are made of leather. The focus, as is usual in this series, lies on manufacturing technology; other topics are discussed in passing. A preliminary typology is proposed.

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Veldmeijer, A.J. 2009: 6, 9: 1-27. Studies of ancient Egyptian footwear. Technological aspects. Part X. Leather composite sandals.

The tenth part in the series on the manufacturing technology of ancient Egyptian footwear (phase I of the Ancient Egyptian Footwear Project) presents 15 so-called ‘leather composite sandals’. These well made sandals, usually in bright colours and decorated, are known from New Kingdom contexts; they were not a common commodity. Although the focus is on the technological aspects, several other topics will be dealt with nonetheless, albeit in passing, among which the preliminary typology.

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Veldmeijer, A.J.  2011: 8, 5: 1-31. Studies of ancient Egyptian footwear. Technological aspects.Part XIV. Leather eared sandals.

Leather Eared Sandals, i.e. sandals with pre-straps that are cut from the sole’s leather, are a well known category of sandals in ancient Egypt, mainly because the manufacturing is depicted in scenes that decorate tombs. Based on archaeological fi nds, we can recognise several subcategories and types. The present paper, as part of the Ancient Egyptian Footwear Project’s publication series, presents the technological details of this category of leather sandals. As usual in this series of papers, other topics are discussed in passing.

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Veldmeijer, A.J. & S. Ikram. 2012: 9, 2: 1-14. First International Chariot Conference. Schedule and Abstracts.

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Verhoogt, A.M.F.W. 2004: 1, 3: 21-25. Family relations in early Roman Tebtunis.

This paper explores two families and the ties that bind them in early Roman Tebtunis. Both families belonged to the village elite of Tebtunis, but seemingly to different ends of it. The reason that nonetheless both families saw fit to marry their children to one another could reflect a marriage strategy on both ends, which in turn could be interpreted as a reaction to the coming of Roman rule to Egypt.

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Wild, J.P. & F. Wild. 2007: 2, 2: 1-9. The textiles from Sikait (Egyptian Eastern Desert).

The 2003 season at Sikait yielded ten textile fragments from six different late Roman contexts. They were not examined on site; but the photographs on which the descriptions below are based were of sufficiently fine resolution to enable most of the basic data to be extracted.

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Willems, H.O. 2003: 0, 1: 8-24. The Belgian excavations at Deir al-Barsja, season 2003.

The mission of the KU Leuven at Deir al-Barsha realised its second season. Research in the quarries led to the discovery of hundreds of new inscriptions of the time of Nectanebo I and II. Much time was devoted to the study of a large graffito depicting forty, mostly Greek, ships. Another interesting discovery is the presence of quarry graffiti dated to years 10 and 11 of Akhenaten. In the area of the nomarchal tombs of the Middle Kingdom, the epigraphic record of tombs 8-10 was finished. The clearance in and in front of the tomb of Djehutihotep was pursued. This has led to a better understanding of the architecture of the monument, to the rediscovery of four tomb shafts of the subordinates of the nomarch, and to the recovery of parts of Djehutihotep’s tomb equipment. The excavation of some pits inside the tomb led to the discovery of decorated wall fragments. Further downhill Old Kingdom tombs on the northern flank of the wadi were excavated. Some tomb equipment of that date or slightly later has been found, but the area turns out to have been intensively reused in later periods as well. Interestingly, numerous tombs turn out to contain Second Intermediate Period burials containing ceramic of Upper Egyptian style. Some tombs also yielded burials of Graeco-Roman date. In and around the early Christian habitations much evidence was found of food consumption on a grand scale. The excavation in the plain led to the discovery of an untouched cemetery area. The tombs date to the early Middle Kingdom and at least one was undisturbed.

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Yarmolovich, V. & E. Chepel. 2019: 16, 3: 1-27. Achaemenid influence on Egyptian pottery: New evidence from Memphis.

The authors analyse new pottery finds from recent excavations of the Centre for Egyptological Studies (Russian Academy of Sciences [CES RAS]) at Memphis. Three groups of archaeological material present particular interest for our discussion: 14 fragments of high-necked bowls, 33 beakers, and one table amphora. All these vessels were produced using Egyptian clays, but their shapes imitate Persian types. Comparison of these new finds with Near Eastern parallels provides insights into aspects of the political agenda of the Achaemenid rulers of Egypt and the extent of cultural interaction and exchange in the 6th-4th c. BCE. The article includes a catalogue of the new pottery (with detailed descriptions, dates, archaeological contexts, and drawings), and a catalogue of the clays that were used in their production.

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Zahradnik, E. 2009: 6, 8: 1-7. Zur Darstellung eines Königs mit krankhaftem Beinbefund auf dem Relief „Spaziergang im Garten“. 

The relief Berlin 15000 from the Amarna Period, known as ‘The Stroll in the Garden’ most likely shows Tutankhamun with an injury of the left leg. According to a specialist in accident surgery who also practices sports medicine, the relief shows a man leaning on an auxiliary crutch whose left leg seems to be injured, as he is holding the crutch on his right side. This assumption is further strengthened by the fact that in 2005, a new CT scan of the mummy of Tutankhamun diagnosed a fracture of the left leg. Tutankhamun was also the sole king to be represented with sticks in his hands, and a high number of sticks were among his grave goods. I elaborate on the unusual representation of a young king holding a staff and the potential medical consequences and complications of a broken leg.

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