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Open Access Journal: Gallia

 [First posted in AWOL 8 December 2009, updated 30 April 2020]

eISSN - 2109-9588
Créée en 1942 par le CNRS, Gallia est la revue de référence de l’archéologie nationale. Son champ chronologique couvre la Protohistoire, depuis le premier âge du Fer, l’Antiquité et l’Antiquité tardive jusqu’à la fin des royaumes mérovingiens. Son champ géographique est celui de l’ancien espace « gaulois », correspondant aux provinces romaines des Trois Gaules, de la Narbonnaise et des Germanies, ainsi que les territoires immédiatement limitrophes qui participent à leur destinée. En ce sens, Gallia accueille des articles, en français ou en anglais, sur des sites ou des découvertes majeures en France, mais aussi dans les pays voisins si leur intérêt concerne la Gaule en général.
La revue est soutenue par le ministère de la Culture et le CNRS.
Created in 1942 by the National Center for Scientific Research, Gallia is the leading journal in the field of French archaeology. The journal publishes in-depth articles about ancient Gaul, from the Early Iron Age, Antiquity to the end of the Merovingian kingdoms. The geographical field encompasses the former Gallic space: the Roman provinces of the Tres Gallia (Three Gauls), the Narbonensis, the Germanies, as well as immediately bordering territories which participate in their fate. The journal welcomes articles, written in English or French, on sites or major discoveries in France but also in the nearby countries.
The Journal is supported by the French Ministry of Culture and the National Center for Scientific Research.
ISBN 978-2-271-12975-8
 Back issues at Persée








Open Access Journal: In Situ: News and Events of the Harvard Standing Committee on Archaeology

In Situ: News and Events of the Harvard Standing Committee on Archaeology
The Standing Committee on Archaeology is a multidisciplinary group of scholars appointed to promote the teaching of archaeology at Harvard and advance knowledge of archaeological activity, research, fieldwork, and techniques in the many and varied fields where archaeology is employed as an approach to past cultures and histories around the world. Archaeology can be seen as the study of past human societies through the recovery, analysis, and interpretation of material remains. Those who practice archaeology employ a wide range of methods, techniques, and theoretical orientations drawn from across the spectrum of academic disciplines to further their specific intellectual goals. Likewise, scholars of many disciplines who do not consider themselves to be practicing archaeologists nevertheless use the results of archaeological work in their teaching and research. Our members and students work with and in a wide range of the museums and departments on Harvard's campus.
spring_2020.pdf 6.39 MB
fall_2019.pdf 6.21 MB
spring_2018.pdf 1.42 MB
spring_2017.pdf 1.9 MB
fall_2016.pdf 2.13 MB
spring_2016.pdf 8.66 MB

Semitic Words in Egyptian Texts of the New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period

Semitic Words in Egyptian Texts of the New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period
Semitic Words in Egyptian Texts of the New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period
  • James E. Hoch
  • 2014
  • Book
  • Published by: Princeton University Press
  • Series: Princeton Legacy Library
  • summary
    Semitic words and names appear in unprecedented numbers in texts of the New Kingdom, the period when the Egyptian empire extended into Syria-Palestine. In his book, James Hoch provides a comprehensive account of these words--their likely origins, their contexts, and their implications for the study of Egyptian and Semitic linguistics and Late-Bronze and Iron-Age culture in the eastern Mediterranean. Unlike previous word catalogs, this work consists of concise word studies and contains a wealth of linguistic, lexical, and cultural information.
    Hoch considers some five hundred Semitic words found in Egyptian texts from about 1500 to 650 b.c.e. Building on previous scholarship, he proposes new etymologies and translations and discusses phonological, morphological, and semantic factors that figure in the use of these words. The Egyptian evidence is essential to an understanding of the phonology of Northwest Semitic, and Hoch presents a major reconstruction of the phonemic systems. Of equal importance is his account of the particular semantic use of Semitic vocabulary, in contexts sometimes quite different from those of the Hebrew scriptures and Ugaritic myths and legends. With its new critical assessment of many hotly debated issues of Semitic and Egyptian philology, this book will be consulted for its lexical and linguistic conclusions and will serve as the basis for future work in both fields.
    Originally published in 1994.
    The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Reconsidering Roman power: Roman, Greek, Jewish and Christian perceptions and reactions

Reconsidering Roman power: Roman, Greek, Jewish and Christian perceptions and reactions
Reconsidering Roman power
Among the imperial states of the ancient world, the Roman empire stands out for its geographical extent, its longevity and its might. This collective volume investigates how the many peoples inhabiting Rome’s vast empire perceived, experienced, and reacted to both the concrete and the ideological aspects of Roman power. More precisely, it explores how they dealt with Roman might through their religious and political rituals; what they regarded as the empire’s distinctive features, as well ...

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Katell Berthelot

The Ancient Theatre Archive: A Virtual Reality Tour of Greek and Roman Theatre Architecture

[First posted in AWOL 2 May 2015, updates 1 May 2020]

The Ancient Theatre Archive: A Virtual Reality Tour of Greek and Roman Theatre Architecture
Google Maps
Theatre Specification Table
Augustodunum (modern Autun, France)
Lugdunum (modern Lyon, France)
Arausio (modern Orange, France)
Arelate (modern Arles, France)
Forum Julii (modern Fréjus, France)
Vasio Vocontiorum (modern Vaison-la-Romaine)
Vienna (modern Vienne, France)
Aegae (modern Vergina, Greece)
Aegeira (modern Egira, Greece)
Argos (modern Argos, Greece)
Cassiope (modern Kamarina, Greece)
Corinth (modern Kórinthos, Greece)
Corinth Odeum (modern Kórinthos, Greece)
Delphi (modern Delfi, Greece)
Delos (Modern Delos, Greece)
Dionysus (modern Athens, Greece)
Dium (modern Malathriá, Greece)
Dodona (modern Dodoni, Greece)
Elis (modern Ilida, Greece)
Epidaururs (modern Epidauros, Greece)
Eretria (modern Eretria, Greece)
Gythium (modern Githio, Greece)
Herodes Atticus
Isthmia (modern Isthmia, Greece)
Mantinea (modern Mantinea, Greece)
Megalopolis (modern Megalopoli, Greece)
Messene (modern Mavromati, Greece)
Milos, Cyclades, South Aegean
Mytilene, Lesbos, North Aegean
Nicopolis (modern Preveza, Greece)
Odeum of Herodes Atticus (modern Athens
Orchomenus (modern Orhomenos, Greece)
Orchomenos, Boeotia, Sterea Hellas
Oropos, the Amphiareion , East Attica
Patrai (Patras), Patra, Achaia, Greece
Philippi (modern Krenides, Greece)
Sicyon (modern Kiato, Greece)
Sparta (modern Sparti, Greece)
Stobi (modern Pustogradske, Greece)
Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki, Greece)
Thera (modern Thira, Greece
Thoricus (modern Thorikos)
Akragas (modern Agrigento,Italy
Arretium (modern Arezzo, Italy)
Brixia (modern Brescia)
Faesulae (modern Fiesole, Italy)
Falerii Novi (modern Fabrica di Roma)
Ferentium (modern Ferento Viterbo, VT, Italy)
Heraclea Minoa
Interamnia Praetuttiorum (modern Teramo, Italy)
Iguvium (modern Gubbio, Italy)
Luna (modern Luni, Italy)
Mevania (modern Bevagna)
Marcellus (modern Rome, Italy)
Morgantina (modern Serra Orlando, Sicily)
Ocriculum (modern Otricoli, TR, Italy)
Ostia (modern Ostia Antica, Italy)
Pompeii Odeum (modern Pompeii, Italy)
Pompeii (modern Pompeii, Italy)
Segesta (modern Calatafimi-Segesta, Italy)
Soluntum, modern Solunto
Spoletium (modern Spoleto, Italy)
Syracusae (modern Siracusa, Italy)
Tauromenium (modern Taormina,Italy)
Tergeste (modern Trieste, Italy)
Tyndaris (modern Tindari, Sicily, Italy
Volaterrae (modern Volterra, Italy
Acinipo (modern Ronda la Vieja, Spain)
Augusta Emerita (modern Mérida, Spain)
Baelo (modern Tarifa, Spain)
Bilbilis (modern Calatayud, Spain)
Clunia (modern Peñalba de Castro, Spain)
Carthago Nova (modern Cartagena, Spain)
Italica (modern Santiponce, Spain)
Malaca (modern Málaga, Spain)
Metellinum (modern Medellin, Spain)
Olisipo (modern Lisbon, Portugal)
Segobriga (modern Saelices, Spain)
Tarraco (modern Tarragonia)
Urso (modern Osuna, Spain)
Antiphellus (modern Kas, Turkey)
Arycanda (modern Arif, Turkey)
Aspendos (modern Belkiz, Turkey)
Aphrodisias (modern Geyre, Turkey)
Ephesus (modern Selçuk, Turkey)
Ephesus Odeum (modern Selçuk, Turkey)
Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum, Turkey)
Hierapolis (modern Pamukkale, Turkey)
Letoon (modern Bozoluk, Turkey)
Miletus (modern Balat, Turkey)
Myra (modern Demre, Turkey)
Patara (modern Kelemis, Turkey
Pergamum (modern Bergama, Turkey)
Pergamum Roman Theatre (Bergama, Turkey)
Perge (modern Aksu, Turkey)
Phaselis (modern Tekirova, Turkey)
Pinara (modern Minare Köyü, Turkey)
Priene (modern Güllübahçe Turkey)
Side (modern Eski Antalya, Turkey)
Simena (modern Kale, Turkey
Telmessus (modern Fethiye, Turkey)
Termessus (modern Güllük, Turkey)
Tlos (modern Düver, Turkey)
Troia (Troy) Odeum (modern Hisarlik, Turkey)
Xanthus (modern Kõnõk, Turkey)

Open Access Monograph Series: Estudos de Egiptologia

 [First posted in AWOL 22 July 2016, updated 1 May 2020]

Estudos de Egiptologia
Capa Estudos de Egiptologia I SEMNA
Semna – Estudos de Egiptologia – With annually published e-books, this series brings together research presented at Museu Nacional’s SEMNA, currently the biggest Egyptological event in the country. SEMNA joins researchers and students from Brazil and elsewhere in a setting of academic discussion and collaboration. For more information about SEMNA, visit the event’s page here.
1) Semna – Estudos de Egiptologia I (2014), eds. Antonio Brancaglion Jr., Thais Rocha da Silva, Rennan de Souza Lemos e Raizza Teixeira dos Santos, Foreword: Dr. Chris Naunton, Seshat/Editora Klínē.\

Trabalhos apresentados na I SEMNA não incluídos neste volume
Equipe organizadora da I SEMNA
Lista de autores
Apresentação, os organizadores
Prefácio/Foreword, Chris Naunton (Egypt Exploration Society, Londres)
Auxiliares para o renascimento: estátuas funerárias de Osíris e Ptah-Sokar-Osíris da coleção do Museu Nacional/UFRJ, Simone Bielesch
Para falar aos deuses: estudo das estatuetas votivas da coleção egípcia do Museu Nacional, Cintia Prates Facuri (Museu Nacional, UFRJ)
Tecnologias tridimensionais aplicadas em pesquisas arqueológicas de múmias egípcias, Simonte Belmonte (INT), Jorge Lopes (PUC-Rio/INT) e Antonio Brancaglion Jr (Museu Nacional, UFRJ)
Amarna: pintando uma nova paisagem, Rennan de Souza Lemos (Museu Nacional, UFRJ)
As representações da família real amarniana e a consolidação de uma nova visão de mundo durante o reinado de Akhenaton (1353-1335 a. C.), Gisela Chapot (UFF)
Hierarquia e mobilidade social no antigo Egito do Reino Novo, Nely Feitoza Arrais (UNILASALLE-RJ)
Implicações econômicas dos templos egípcios e a constituição de poderes locais: um estudo sobre o Reino Antigo, Maria Thereza David João (USP)
Sobre a importância da teoria social na egiptologia econômica, Fábio Frizzo (UFF)
Identidade, gênero e poder no Egito Romano, Marcia Severina Vasques (UFRN)
“E me traga essa carta de volta”. As cartas aos deuses e os estudos de gênero no Egito Ptolomaico. Contribuições da antropologia, Thais Rocha da Silva (USP/Museu Nacional, UFRJ)
As estelas funerárias com o morto reclinado em uma cama funerária: etnia, identidade emaranhamento cultural no Baixo Egito durante o Período Romano, Pedro Luiz Diniz von Seehausen (Museu Nacional, UFRJ)
Adriano e o Egito: a construção de um modelo egipcianizante para a Villa Adriana, Evelyne Azevedo (Museu Nacional, UFRJ)

2) Semna– Estudos de Egiptologia II (2015), eds. Antonio Brancaglion Jr., Rennan de Souza Lemos e Raizza Teixeira dos Santos, Seshat/Editora Klínē.

Des hommes et des dieux : une approche anthropologique de la religion Egyptienne, Christiane Zivie-Coche
Homens e deuses: uma abordagem antropológica da religião egípcia, Chistiane Zivie-Coche (tradução: C. A. Gama-Rolland)
Agindo como deuses: um olhar sobre a família real nos relevos amarnianos (1353-1335 a. C.), Gisela Chapot
A divindade Serápis: cultura, religião e sincretismo na Alexandria greco-romana, Joana Campos Clímaco
Expressões materiais da devoção pessoal no Egito antigo, Cintia Prates Facuri
Egipcianização e resistência na Núbia da XVIII Dinastia, Fábio Frizzo
Narrativas da restauração: referências sobre a Reforma Amarniana nos governos sucessores, Vanessa Fronza
A representação real nos shabtis do Novo Império, Cintia A. Gama-Rolland
Amenemope, o coração e a filosofia, ou a cardiografia (do pensamento), Renato Noguera
“Uma inundação no céu para os estrangeiros”” o projeto de expansão da religião de Amarna na Núbia, Regina Coeli Pinheiro da Silva e Rennan de Souza Lemos
A Janela das Aparições e as concepções post-mortem na necrópole de Akhetaton, André Effgen
O que queremos que as mulheres nos escrevam? As cartas demóticas e os estudos de gênero entre a iconografia e a papirologia, Thais Rocha da Silva
La vida y la muerte en la conformación de redes sociales en la necrópolis tebana, Egipto, Liliana Manzi y Maria Victoria Nicora
A Cleópatra de Mankiewicz (1963): imperialismo, eurocentrismo e etnicidade na representação cinematográfica da Antiguidade, Renata Soares de Souza
Um espelho de Kemet: experiência e espaço no Livro dos Mortos, Keidy Narelly Costa Matias
A imagem divina de Menkeret na tumba de Tutankhamun, Raizza Teixeira dos Santos

3) Semna – Estudos de Egiptologia III (2016), eds. Antonio Brancaglion Jr. e Cintia Gama-Rolland., Seshat/Editora Klínē.

(click on the image to download)
Acerca de la Htmj.t como espacio caótico en el “orden” de la Duat, Mariano Bonanno
Arte e simbolismo: uma análise da iconografia das filhas de Akhenaton durante o período amarniano, Gisela Chapot
Proyecto político thumósida en la fraseología real: el caso del protocolo de Thutmose III en los obeliscos de Kanak, Elisa Neira Cordeiro
A Base Nacional Curricular Comun (BNCC) e os descaminhos do ensino da antiguidade egípcia no Brasil, Fábio Frizzo
Une discussion à propos de la découverte des chaouabtis royaux du Nouvel Empire, Cintia A. Gama-Rolland
The price of gold and loyalty: parallels and disparities in the roles of royal women of the Late Bronze Age, Luiza Osorio Guimarães da Silva
La fundación de Akhetatón: ¿ruptura o corolario?, Maria Laura Iamarino
Repatriação de bens culturais egípcios, Karine Lima da Costa
Territorio, apropiación y poder en la Dinastía XII, Gabriela Lovecky
Lo explícito, lo insinuado y lo oculto en el paisaje tebano, Liliana Manzi
La especificidad del retrato: un estudio comparativo, Liliana Manzi
Elementos disruptores no conto “O Reio Kéops e os Magos”, Patricia Zulli

ARCHAEOLOGY Magazine temporarily open access

ARCHAEOLOGY Magazine temporarily open access
We are excited to introduce temporary complimentary access to our archive of over 70 years of ARCHAEOLOGY Magazine and to bring a world of discovery to your home. Use the link below to access the archive with an email address or to sign in with your digital subscriber information. Once you have signed up for an account, log in as a digital subscriber.

Giza Botanical Database: Charred Macrobotanical remains from Ancient Egypt Research Associates (AERA) excavations in Old Kingdom settlements at Giza 1988–2018

Giza Botanical Database: Charred Macrobotanical remains from Ancient Egypt Research Associates (AERA) excavations in Old Kingdom settlements at Giza 1988–2018
Since 1988 Ancient Egypt Research Associates has systematically collected sediment samples for flotation in order to recover macrobotanical remains from project excavations in Old Kingdom settlements on the low desert to the southeast of the Giza Plateau, Egypt. The goal has been to contribute information on ancient plant use to the project research. This dataset contains all samples studied between 1988–2018. Site conditions at Heit el-Ghurab fluctuate between wet and dry (and have done so for millennia), and therefore only charred plant remains are preserved. Despite the drier conditions of the Khentkawes Town, only charred remains are preserved there as well.
The remains come primarily from two different settlement sites—the Khentkawes Town and Heit el-Ghurab. Within the Heit el-Ghurab settlement there are three distinctly different neighborhoods—the Western Town (large dwellings), the Eastern Town (small village-like dwellings), and the Galleries (a walled area possibly designated for communal accommodation for work and expedition crews). The Khentkawes Town was initially constructed to house priests attached to the funerary cult, but later was probably re-purposed. Information about archaeological features varies for different areas of excavation due to evolving standards of site recording over 30 years.
Dr. Wilma Wetterstrom initiated botanical work at the site. In 1995 the project expanded and Dr. Mary Anne Murray took over. In 2007 Claire Malleson joined as assistant, and in 2012 took over as lead botanist. Trainees have included Mennat-Allah El Dorry, Rebab el-Gendy and Essam Ahmed Soliman.
The Giza Botanical Database project was designed to make this data publicly available for the first time. The work conducted between July 2017–June 2018 focused on data “cleaning.” It included the following:
  • Human errors in the database were corrected via a cross-check with the AERA site database (for example, obvious misread/miswritten and mistyped feature or bag numbers, such as "0" instead of "6,""1" instead of "7").
  • Area codes that had been updated in post-excavation work were corrected based on cross-checks with AERA site database and AERA GIS. This document provides a summary description of areas as well bibliographic references.
  • Feature information was updated using the AERA database and the AERA GIS.
  • The format of the unique ID for samples (the Master_Sample_Number) was made consistent throughout.
  • All botanical identifications were corrected based on updated information. For example, where we had grouped similar unknown items (for example “Trifolieae type A/B/C or D”) when we first encountered them, we later successfully identified these items, but had not necessarily updated the database. In these instances the database was corrected to show the correct identification).
  • Botanical terms were updated to reflect accepted international changes in nomenclature/taxonomy (for example, Graminae became Poaceae, Leguminoseae became Fabaceae). It was decided to retain the older names in the records due to the fact that not all student / trainee archaeobotanists are aware of, or familiar with these changes. Some archaeobotanists prefer to retain the older terminologies.
  • Field notebooks were cross-checked with the database; corrections were made, and any missing samples were added.
  • In addition, the archive (all field notes of flotation and identifications) was updated and stored as hard copies in Boston and Giza, and as digital copies on the AERA server and a dedicated external hard drive.

Table Icon

Download: Giza Botany Feature Summaries Excel File

This Excel workbook file summarizes counts of specimens by plant taxa for features in different areas of excavation in a paleobotanist friendly layout.

Suggested Citation

Claire Malleson, Rebekah Miracle. "Giza Botanical Database". (2018) Claire Malleson, Rebekah Miracle (Eds.) . Released: 2018-10-22. Open Context. <http://opencontext.org/projects/10aa84ad-c5de-4e79-89ce-d83b75ed72b5> DOI: https://doi.org/10.6078/M7JH3J99

Open Access Journal: AERAGRAM

[First posted in AWOL 29 October 2009. Updated 2 May 2020]

ISSN: 1944-0014 
AERAGRAM is the official newsletter of Ancient Egypt Research Associates.
PDFs of past issues are available below. The most recent issue is only available to our members. Click here to become an AERA member & help support our work in Egypt.

Volume 19

AERAgram 19-2
• Kromer in Context: Bio of an Ancient Dump
• Return to the Menkaure Valley Temple
• AERA Field School at Khentkawes Town
• Giza Botanical Database Online
AERAgram 19-1
Spring 2018
• Kromer 2018: Basket by Basket
• Where in the World Is the Great Pyramid?
• Spinning and Weaving at the Pyramids
• From the Lab: Mechanics of an Influx
• Learning Animal Bone: AERA-ARCE Field School

Volume 18

AERAgram 18-1
Spring 2017
• Who Built the Sphinx?
• Finding Petrie’s Marks on the Giza Plateau
• In Search of Khufu
• A Roof Over Their Heads
• How Egyptians Quarried Their Building Blocks
AERAgram 18-2
Fall 2017
• Voices of Memphis
• Kafr, Village of the Pyramid Sheikhs at Giza
• Bone Smashing
• David Goodman: Back to the Point of Beginning
• Sphinx Archive Project: It’s a Wrap

Volume 17

Spring/Fall 2016 (members only)
• Exploring a High Official’s Office-Residence
• MSCD Memphis Project: The Final Year
• In Search of the Human Hand that Built the Great Pyramid
• Mit Rahinia Museum Catalog in the Works
• AERA to Publish Archive of the Great Sphinx

Volume 16

Download Spring 2015
• Discovery 2015: House of a High Official
• What Was the Original Size of the Great Pyramid?
• The Gallery Complex Gives Up Its Secrets
• Hidden Details Come to Light with Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI)
• Jon Jerde: The Space In Between
Download Fall 2015
• Memphis Site & Community Development: Ambitious Plans, Big Challenges
• Results from the Survey of the Great Pyramid
• A Second Official’s House Discovered
• Remembering Kamal Waheed
• US Ambassador to Egypt Tours the Lost City Site

Volume 15

Download Spring/Fall 2014
• On the Waterfront: Canals and Harbors in the Time of Giza Pyramid-Building
• Did Egyptians Use the Sun to Align the Pyramids?
• A Change of Address: Funerary Workshop Priests Move to New Quarters
• A Return to Area AA: Informal Seals and Sealings of the Heit el-Ghurab
• Construction Hub to Cult Center: Re-purposing, Old Kingdom Style

Volume 14

Download Spring 2013
• The Lost Port City of the Pyramids: Heit el-Ghurab reveals a new role as part of a major port of the Nile
• How the Pyramid Builders Found True North
• The First Photos Taken from the Great Pyramid Summit
• Weeds & Seeds: On the Trail of Ancient Egyptian Agriculture
Download Fall 2013
• “PEAKIT” Punches Up 3D Laser Scanning, Adds Accurate Surface Relief
• The Lost City is Named One of the Top 10 Field Discoveries
• An Ancient Egyptian Insect Repellent
• A Small Clay Label, a Bundle of Linen, and an Ancient Economic Network
• Securing AERA’s Legacy: Data Curation

Volume 13

Download Spring 2012
• Memphis, A City Unseen
• Field School Grads Take The Lead
• North by Northwest: The Strange Case of Giza’s Misalignments
• GPMP Full Circle

Download Fall 2012
• New Angles on the Great Pyramids
• Fifth Dynasty Renaissance at Giza
• The Silo Building Complex
• Living on a Slope in the Town of Queen Khentkawes
• Egypt’s Oldest Olive

Volume 12

Download Spring 2011
• The OK Corral
• The Luxor Study Field School
• Bringing an Ancient House Back to Life
• The Buried Basin and the Town Beyond

Kindle Edition Now Available For Purchase

Download Fall 2011
• Solar Alignments of Giza
• GIS Brings It All Together
• Stews, Meat and Marrow
• The Mit Rahina Field School


Volume 11

AERAGRAM_11-1 cover
Download Spring 2010
• Called Back to Luxor: AERA-ARCE Field School
• Ascending Giza on a Monumental Ramp
• Analysis and Publication Field School
• A New Field Season: A New Home

Download Winter 2011
• Digging Again
• Training Egypt’s Archaeological Scientists
• Double-Decker Dorms
• On The Cusp Of A New Dynasty

Volume 10

AERAGram 2009 10:1
Download Spring 2009
• 10, 20, 30 Years: Mark Lehner Reflects on a Career in Archaeology
• In Memoriam: Mahmoud Kirsh
• Daily Life of the Pyramid Builders
• AERA’s New Home
AERAGram 2009 10:2
Download Fall 2009
• The 2009 Field School
• Teaching Ceramics
• A Priest’s Home in Khentkawes Town
• Dog Burials Discovered at Giza

Volume 9

AERAGRAM 2008 9:1Download Spring 2008
• Impressions of the Past
• Lost City Site, Flooded
• AERA Membership Program
• Digging Old Luxor
• Rescue Dig, SAFS
AERAGRAM 2008 9:2Download Fall 2008
• Deciphering Ancient Code
• Small Finds, Big Results
• Egypt’s Oldest Olive
• Two Royal Towns
• Giza: Overviews

Volume 8

AERAGRAM 2006 8:1Download Fall 2006
• Class of 2005
• GIS: Digitizing Archaeology
• Conservation Pilot Program
• Rescue Archaeology
AERAGRAM 2007 8:2Download Fall 2007
• Enigma of the Pedestals
• Ideas to Reality
• A High-Class Dump
• Class of 2006
• Mapping Khentkawes

Volume 7

AERAGRAM 2003 7:1Download Spring 2004
• Remote sensing
• Glen Dash
• Egyptian labor organization
AERAGRAM 2004 7:2Download Fall 2004
• Western Town
• Eastern Town house
• Microscope photography

Volume 6

AERAGRAM  2002 6:1Download Fall 2002
• Millennium Project
• Gallery revealed
• Pharaoh’s storeroom
AERAGRAM 2002 6:2Download Fall 2003
• Pyramid city
• Peter Norton
• Mapping Aswan quarries

Volume 5

AERAGRAM  2001 5:1Download Fall 2001
• Footprint of the state
• Desert in flood
• Wall of the Crow
AERAGRAM  2001 5:2Download Spring 2002
• Unfinished Giza
• David Koch
• Fabric of a pyramid

Volume 4

AERAGRAM  2000 4:1Download Fall 2000
• Unveiling a royal plan
• Jon Jerde
• Magnetic anomaly surveying
AERAGRAM  2000 4:2Download Spring 2001
• Giza galleries
• Matthew McCauley
• Khafre’s galleries

Volume 3

AERAGRAM  1999 3:1Download 1999
• Capturing Area A
• Bruce Ludwig
• The older phase
AERAGRAM  2000 3:2Download 2000
• Drawing Giza
• The Millennium Clock
• Millennium Project

Volume 2

AERAGRAM  1998 2:1Download Winter 1998
• Microarchaeology
• Sealings from Giza
• Pots to pyramids

AERAGRAM  1998 2:2Download Summer 1998
• A workman’s house
• Sphinx restoration
• Sand, wind, and heat
• Late period burials
• Copper workshop

Volume 1

AERAGRAM  1996 1:1Download Fall 1996
• Introducing AERAGRAM
• Pyramid-age bakery reconstructed
• Radiocarbon dating
AERAGRAM  1997 1:2Download Spring 1997
• Director’s diary
• GPMP database
• 1997 field season

Corpus of Akkadian Shuila Prayers Online

[First posted in AWOL 22 May 2017, updated 2 May 2020]

Corpus of Akkadian Shuila Prayers Online
Alan Lenzi, University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA)
In contemporary religion Jews, Christians, and Muslims lift their hands in prayer. Although its significance differs between traditions, the basic hand-raising gesture has a common origin in the ancient Near East, dating back to the third millennium BCE. Hand-raising was an interpersonal greeting in ancient Near Eastern society (Frechette 2012; →library). When a social inferior approached a person of higher social rank, the inferior greeted the superior with up-raised hands to establish a rapport and to gain a favorable hearing. When the ancient Mesopotamians raised their hands as they addressed their high gods in prayer—a gesture ubiquitously depicted in ancient Mesopotamian art (e.g.→here)—they were adapting this social custom to their religious activities. The same is true for the hand-raising gesture in other Near Eastern cultures; see, for example, the biblical adaptation of the gesture in 1 Kings 8:22 and 1 Timothy 2:8. The salutatory gesture of hand-raising (in Sumerian, šu-il₂-la(₂)) became so characteristic of supplication that the Mesopotamians named an entire genre of prayer after it, the shuila-prayer. The genre dates back to the second millennium BCE, though nearly all of the tablets preserving these prayers come from first millennium BCE Mesopotamian sites.

Shuilas are liturgical ritual-prayers that were directed to the high deities of the Mesopotamian pantheon such as Marduk, Shamash, and Ishtar, among others. A ritual official (i.e., an exorcist) recited these prayers to assist a troubled client, often a Babylonian or Assyrian king. The exorcist would read the prayer aloud and the (presumably illiterate) client would repeat the words after him.
The wording and ritual instructions of the shuila-prayers provide an important resource for insight into officially sanctioned religious practices and concepts. The prayers consist of several standard components arranged in a common form, though components are sometimes lacking and their order can differ somewhat from prayer to prayer. Every prayer invariably begins with a hymnic introduction that lauds the addressee’s divine attributes and position within the pantheon. After the hymnic introduction, the prayers may provide a generic identification formula (literally, “so-and-so, son of so-and-so,” etc.) into which the supplicant would substitute his/her name. The prayers then move on to voice complaints that typically relate to the supplicant’s health, social alienation, and feelings of divine abandonment. Petitions seeking remediation and reconciliation for the supplicant may then follow the complaints or be interspersed among them. The prayers conclude with a promise to praise the deity for hearing and responding to the supplicant.

The actual wording of the prayers draws from a common stock of formulaic phrases and motifs (Mayer 1976; →library). The texts implore the god(s) to look kindly upon the supplicant, quell the anger of the supplicant’s personal gods (responsible for health, security, and social standing), and restore wholeness to the supplicant’s life. The prayers present confessions of sin, claims of bewitchment, descriptions of bodily pain and disease, and even questions of divine beneficence. The prayers also describe ritual actions the supplicant would presumably enact during the recitation (e.g., bowing, seizing the hem of a deity’s garment, raising hands, etc.). In exchange for the deity’s favor the petitioner promises to praise the deity.

Ritual instructions, if any, were provided in a separate section after the wording of the prayer. The instructions may include the preparation of ritual paraphernalia, the offering of food stuffs, specific requirements of bodily comportment, and the number of times the supplicant should recite the prayer.
Although a shuila-prayer could be performed as a self-contained rite, many of the prayers were incorporated into larger ritual ceremonies used for the king. In fact, some prayers were used in more than one such ceremony, though the precise wording of the prayer might vary according to ritual context. For example, the shuila-prayer to the moon god, designated Sîn 1 in our catalog, is known from ten different tablets. Among these textual witnesses are instructions for the prayer’s use in a dream ritual, a ritual to ward off the evil of a lunar eclipse, and a royal lustration. The prayer’s wording varies according to the ritual in which it is embedded. The analysis of the ritual uses and re-uses of the shuila-prayers is still in its beginning stages.
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  • Saxa Loquuntur: A Website on Greek and Latin epigraphy

    [First posted in AWOL 15 July 2013, updated 4 May 2020]

    Saxa Loquuntur: A Website on Greek and Latin epigraphy
    This site brings together a number of resources that are available for the study of epigraphic texts. The site was designed for my own courses at the University of Groningen and at the Netherlands Institute at Athens The site will be based on two earlier documents that I have compiled, The Absolute Beginners’ Guide to Greek and Latin Epigraphy and Electronic Epigraphy, which found some readers over the web. The focus is on Greek inscriptions, but Latin texts are not excluded!

        Open Access Journal: Journal of World-Systems Research

        [First posted in AWOL 4 November 2009. Updated 4 May 2020]]

        Journal of World-Systems Research
        ISSN 1076-156X
        Journal of World-Systems Research
        The main editorial goal of the Journal of World-Systems Research is to develop and disseminate scholarly research on topics that are relevant to the analysis of world-systems. We especially want to include works that proceed from several different theoretical stances and disciplines. These include, but are not limited to, civilizationists, evolutionary approaches, international political economy, comparative, historical and cultural analysis. We seek the work of political scientists, historians, sociologists, ethnographers, archaeologists, economists and geographers.

        We especially encourage works that take theory seriously by confronting problems of conceptualization and making definitions of concepts explicit, by formulating hypotheses, constructing axiomatic theories and causal models. Theoretical research programs that combine theory construction with comparative research are badly needed to take the world-systems approach beyond the stage of a perspective.

        We also want to encourage the application of comparative, quantititave and network-analytic methods to world-systems research, though we will certainly also publish pieces that do not use these methods. Any empirical study that is deemed relevant to world-systems analysis may be published even if it uses a very different conceptual framework.

        And finally we also want to publish discussions of future trajectories and options for the modern world-system and considerations of what can be done to create a more humane, peaceful and just world society.

        Papyrus Milbank: Unrolling the Book of the Dead Papyrus of Irtyunu

        Papyrus Milbank: Unrolling the Book of the Dead Papyrus of Irtyunu
        Foy Scalf
        The papyrus of Irtyuru was originally made sometime around the second century BC, perhaps in the region near Memphis in Egypt. Because the papyrus was removed from its original tomb context, it is difficult to be more precise. In 1919 James Henry Breasted saw the papyrus for sale in the shop of an antiquities dealer in Cairo named Nicolas Tano. At the time, the scroll was still rolled up and flexible enough to be unrolled. It was over 33 feet long (1029 cm) and a foot high (30 cm)! When shown the first scenes of the papyrus, Breasted was stunned by its elegant appearance. He acquired funds from Elizabeth Milbank Anderson to purchase the papyrus for the Oriental Institute and designated it "Papyrus Milbank" in her honor. This exhibit will allow you to "unroll" this papyrus in order to explore its fascinating contents.
        And see also: Virtual Exhibit: Book Of the Dead: Becoming God in Ancient Egypt

        Dura-Europos, 'Pompeii of the Syrian Desert'

        Dura-Europos, 'Pompeii of the Syrian Desert'
        Dura-Europos in Eastern Syria is a classic abandoned ancient city. Excavations (1920-1937, renewed 1986-2011), revealed spectacular remains. These comprised elaborately decorated buildings, including a painted synagogue and a very early Christian church, and astonishingly well-preserved artefacts. The city seemed suddenly frozen in time, leading to Dura often being called 'the Pompeii of the Syrian desert’.

        Micropasts: Conducting, designing and funding research into our human past

         [First posted in AWOL 23 October 2013, updated 4 May 2020]

         MicroPasts: Crowd-sourcing

        Crowdfuelled and Crowdsourced archaeological data

        You can assist existing research projects with tasks that need human intelligence, such as the accurate location of artefact findspots or photographed scenes, the identification of subject matter in historic archives, the masking of photos meant for 3D modelling, or the transcription of letters and catalogues. Other tasks might require on-location contributions by members of the public, such as submitting your own photographs of particular archaeological sites or objects. By contributing to a MicroPasts project you will:
        • Have a direct impact on research in archaeology, history and heritage
        • Help with tasks that computers cannot do
        • Develop skills that interest you
        • Produce results that will be open and freely usable
        To start contributing, just choose one of our Featured Projects below or visit our full list of ongoing Projects.

        Hedera Reader

        Hedera Reader
        The Hedera Reader is a reading and vocabulary environment for Latin, Greek, and Russian texts intended for use by teachers, students, and independent learners alike.

        Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire

         [First posted in AWOL 4 June 2015, updated 5 May 2020]

        Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire
        This site, the PBE I Online edition,  presents the research output of the Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire project, 641-867 (PBE I) which was carried out primarily at King's College London from the 1989 to 2001. It covered a period when the administrative structure and governing elite of Byzantium were undergoing crucial changes, and when the Mediterranean world of Late Antiquity was assuming the forms of the Middle Ages.

        Click on the Data tab (above) to access the PBE I contents.

        PBI I was originally published by Ashgate as a CD in 2001, and the Online edition you are now looking at contains, other than these few opening pages, the same materials presented almost exactly as they were then on that CD.  However, behind the visual display, the current site uses several more modern web technologies to make the material operate better on modern browsers.

        A further project, the Prosopography of the Byzantine World, begun after the completion of PBE I, worked with sources from 1025 to 1150.  It is online at http://www.pbw.kcl.ac.uk.

        Open Access Journals in Middle Eastern and and Islamic Studies

        [First posted in AWOL 29 March 2015, updated 5 May 2020]

        Access to Mideast and Islamic Resources (AMIR) [ISSN 2160-3049], a sister project of AWOL, is intended as a tool to assemble and distribute information on open access material relating to the Middle East and Islamic Studies. It includes a developing:
        Alphabetical List of Open Access Journals in Middle Eastern Studies

        currently listing 575 titles.  There is some (but not much) overlap between that lists and the List of Open Access Journals in Ancient Studies. Those interested in this domain can subscribe to AMIR directly.

        New Open Access Journal: Journal of Historical Network Research

        Journal of Historical Network Research
         e-ISSN: 2535-8863
        While interdisciplinary research into the relational paradigm has produced an impressive body of work across the social and political sciences and also, increasingly, among historians, there is as yet no international medium of publication devoted to the study of networks in their historical contexts. This has put scholars with an interest in historical network research—both historians and historical sociologists—at a great disadvantage, and has meant that they have long been accustomed to publishing research papers in non-historical journals. The situation for historians interested in network research is further complicated by academic and cultural idiosyncrasies, since much of the groundbreaking and recent research into historical networks in the English-speaking world has been carried out by historical sociologists, rather than social historians, and has thus remained mostly outside the sphere of traditional academic history departments. This has naturally also influenced the means of publication for research in this area; preferred journals such as Social Networks and the American Journal of Sociology focus heavily on methodological and theoretical aspects. In short, there are no international publications devoted to the study of networks (social and otherwise) from a specifically historical perspective.
        This is the gap that the Journal of Historical Network Research is keen to fill. Its aim is to publish outstanding and original contributions which apply the theories and methodologies of social network analysis to historical research, to help advance the epistemological and theoretical understanding of social network analysis in the historical, social and political sciences, and to promote empirical research on historical social interactions. The journal aims to promote the interplay between different areas of historical research (in the broadest sense), social and political sciences, and different research traditions and disciplines, while strengthening the dialogue between network research and “traditional” historical research. The journal will serve as a meeting place for the traditional hermeneutics of historical research and its concomitant emphasis on contextualisation and historical source criticism (as present in traditional academic historical journals) on the one hand, and the theory-heavy and/or sometimes overly technical discussion of methodological and technological issues (which predominates in publications focused on “pure” or sociological network research) on the other. All contents are made available free of charge to readers and authors following Open Access principles.
        Wim Broekaert, Elena Köstner, Christian Rollinger (eds.)

        During the last decade, the field of ancient history and classics has witnessed a slow but steady increase of publications applying to Greco-Roman history the concepts of social network analysis (SNA). While initially mainly introducing the concept of networks and connectivity in a metaphorical sense, recent research increasingly turned to the more quantitative aspects of network analysis. It is therefore quite remarkable that few attempts have been made to apply the tools of formal network analysis to a research topic ideally suited for this particular approach, viz. Greco-Roman politics. Literary sources, inscriptions and papyri offer a wealth of information on municipal and imperial elites, careers, selection procedures, and most importantly, the ties of family, marriage, friendship, patronage, and bribery that connected them. As the case studies in this special, guest-edited issue of The Journal of Historical Network Research show, SNA promises to offer new perspectives on a research field mainly dominated by more traditional prosopographical studies and at the same time provide a powerful tool for analyzing and visualizing social and political connections in ancient societies.

        Published: 2020-05-05

        Introducing the 'Ties that Bind'

        Wim Broekaert, Elena Köstner, Christian Rollinger

        Athens as a Small World

        Diane Harris Cline

        Third Issue
        Vol 3 (2019)

        Second Issue
        Vol 2 (2018)

        Inaugural Issue
        Vol 1 (2017)

        See AWOL's full List of Open Access Journals in Ancient Studies

        Lecture: Feudalism and its Characteristics in Ancient Iran

        Feudalism and its Characteristics in Ancient Iran

        Recorded: March 11, 2020
        Event: The Biennial Ehsan Yarshater Lecture Series

        by Daniel Potts (New York University)

        Feudalism and its Characteristics in Ancient Iran

        The fifth and final lecture examines feudalism and vassalage as identified by various scholars in the Achaemenid, Arsacid, and Sasanian evidence. It considers the identification of leading individuals and families through the display of quasiheraldic tamgas and, in particular, the problematic interpretation of those associated with Ardavān, Ardašīr I, Šābūhr I, and several earlier Arsacid rulers, and it examines one particular case, illustrating the history of early modern Western engagement with Sasanian antiquities. It concludes by considering cognation and agnation in Sasanian succession, as part of the debate surrounding feudalism in ancient Iran.

        About the Speaker

        Daniel Potts is Professor of Ancient Near Eastern Archaeology and History in the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World (ISAW) at New York University. He received his AB (1975) and PhD (1980) in Anthropology from Harvard University, specializing in Near Eastern archaeology. He taught previously at the Freie Universität Berlin (1981-86), the University of Copenhagen (1980-81, 1986-1991) and the University of Sydney (1991-2012), where he held the Edwin Cuthbert Hall Chair of Middle Eastern Archaeology. His main areas of interest are greater Iran, Mesopotamia, and the Persian Gulf, and as a field archaeologist he has conducted numerous excavations, among others in Iran and Turkey. He is a Corresponding Member of the German Archaeological Institute and ISMEO (Associazione Internazionale di Studi sul Mediterraneo e l’Oriente), and is a Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities.